Stats analysis: Imran Khan

A giant among allrounders

At his peak, Imran Khan the bowler was easily among the best in the world, while his skilful batting and inspirational captaincy made him the complete package

S Rajesh

November 1, 2010

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Imran Khan took four wickets in Pakistan's ten-wicket win, England v Pakistan, 2nd Test, Lord's, 5th day, August 16, 1982
Imran Khan: exceptional with bat, ball, and as a leader © Getty Images
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Even among the many great allrounders who have played the game, Imran Khan stands out. He was the complete package: a technically sound batsman who could defend or attack as the situation demanded; an aggressive fast bowler who could swing and seam the new ball and the old one; and an inspirational captain who held the Pakistan team together by the sheer force of his personality and gave Pakistan their proudest moment in international cricket. Apart from Garry Sobers, his stats compare favourably with every other allrounder. Imran finished with a Test batting average of almost 38 and a bowling average of 23, and those numbers didn't flatter him, for he was as good as they suggest.

Perhaps where Imran stood out, even when compared to other great allrounders, was that at various times in his career his stats were among the world's best in both bowling and batting. Over his entire career, bowling was undoubtedly his stronger suit, but when a severe stress fracture in his shin forced him to restrict his bowling, he improved his batting so much that in his last five years in international cricket his batting average was among the highest in the world.

Imran began his Test career in England in the summer of 1971, but he established his credentials as a genuine Test player only in late 1976: first, he took 14 wickets in three home Tests against New Zealand, and then, on the tour to Australia later that season, he destroyed the home team in Sydney with a pair of six-wicket hauls, which gave him his first ten-for in Tests. It remains the best match figures by a Pakistan bowler in Australia. Riding on that momentum, Imran picked up 25 wickets in five Tests in the West Indies, and then matched up well against the big boys in two seasons of the World Series, again taking 25 wickets at an excellent average of 20.84. Despite all that success, though, his overall stats in the 1970s were quite modest when compared with what was to follow in the next decade.

In the 1980s, Imran was in his pomp, and he was easily among the top five players in the world during this period. Till the end of 1988, both his batting and his bowling were in fine fettle: he averaged almost 40 with the bat and less than 18 with the ball, numbers which indicate quite emphatically just how dominant he was. He was even more lethal in the 14 months between November 1981 and January 1983: in 16 Tests during this period he averaged almost 48 with the bat, and took 104 wickets at an incredible average of 14.87, with eight five-wicket hauls. India and Australia played six Tests each against Pakistan during this period, and both suffered extensively at the hands of Imran: he destroyed India's much-vaunted batting line-up with 40 wickets at 13.95, while Australia fared only slightly better, conceding 29 wickets to him at 16.65. Of the 11 Man-of-the-Match awards he won in his entire Test career, five came in a six-month period from August 1982 to January 1983. In the third Test of that series against India, Imran scored 117 in Pakistan's first innings and had match figures of 11 for 117, making him one of only two players - Ian Botham is the other - to score a century and take ten wickets in the same Test.

In his last three years in Test cricket Imran didn't bowl much, averaging only about 25 overs per Test, but his batting went to a new level altogether, as he went past 50 nine times in 20 innings.

Imran Khan's Test career
Period Tests Runs Average 100s/ 50s Wickets Average 5WI/ 10WM
Till Dec 1979 25 832 22.48 0/ 1 98 31.88 5/ 1
Jan 1980 to Dec 1988 48 2028 39.76 4/ 10 236 17.77 18/ 5
Jan 1989 onwards 15 947 72.84 2/ 7 28 33.53 0/ 0
Overall 88 3807 37.69 6/ 18 362 22.81 23/ 6

In ODIs too, Imran's career followed a similar pattern: the 80s were his most prolific period with bat and ball, while in the last three years of his career his bowling took a back seat. His biggest ODI exploit was obviously leading Pakistan to the World Cup win in 1992, where his contribution extended beyond his inspirational leadership: his bowling wasn't a huge force, but with the bat his efforts at No.3 were key in the semi-final and the final, where his 72 was the highest score of the match.

While his best period in Test cricket was the 1982-83 season, in ODIs, quite surprisingly, his peak year was 1989. He played 26 matches that year, easily his highest in a calendar year, and shone with both bat and ball, scoring 793 runs at 46.64, and taking 29 wickets at 25.79. Of the 13 Man-of-the-Match awards he won in his entire ODI career, six came in that year alone.

Imran Khan's ODI career
Period ODIs Runs Average Strike rate Wickets Average Econ rate
Till Dec 1980 14 108 15.42 59.34 16 25.93 3.32
Jan 1981 to Dec 1989 122 2651 33.98 75.67 142 22.96 3.90
Jan 1990 onwards 39 950 36.53 66.90 24 48.66 4.12
Career 175 3709 33.41 72.65 182 26.61 3.89

During his peak years in Test cricket, Imran was easily the best allrounder among his peers. In the nine years between 1980 and 1988, his bowling average of 17.77 was almost 22 lesser than his batting average - the difference was clearly the best among those with 1500 runs and 100 wickets during this period. Hadlee's bowling performances were exceptional during this period, but he couldn't quite match up to Imran with the bat, while both Botham and Kapil had far lesser success with the ball.

Top allrounders between 1980 and 1988 (Qual: 1500 runs, 100 wickets)
Player Tests Runs Average 100s/ 50s Wickets Average 5WI/ 10WM Diff in ave
Imran Khan 48 2028 39.76 4/ 10 236 17.77 18/ 5 21.99
Richard Hadlee 51 1987 31.04 2/ 10 284 19.03 28/ 7 12.01
Ian Botham 72 3989 34.38 10/ 19 255 31.83 15/ 2 2.55
Kapil Dev 72 3103 31.98 5/ 16 242 30.05 14/ 2 1.93
Ravi Shastri 61 2702 34.64 7/ 10 132 38.24 2/ 0 -3.60

In fact, extending this analysis to all Test cricket, only Sobers had a higher difference between batting and bowling averages (among those with at least 3000 runs and 200 wickets, and two wickets per Test). Jacques Kallis is the other allrounder who has more than 3000 runs and 200 wickets - and a huge difference between batting and bowling averages - but for much of his career Kallis has been a batsman who bowls a bit: his 266 wickets have come from 140 Tests, an average of less than two wickets per match.

Best allrounders in Tests (Qual: 3000 runs and 200 wkts; at least two wkts per Test)
Player Tests Runs Average 100s Wickets Average 5WI Diff in ave
Garry Sobers 93 8032 57.78 26 235 34.03 6 23.75
Imran Khan 88 3807 37.69 6 362 22.81 23 14.88
Shaun Pollock 108 3781 32.31 2 421 23.11 16 9.20
Ian Botham 102 5200 33.54 14 383 28.40 27 5.14
Richard Hadlee 86 3124 27.16 2 431 22.29 36 4.87
Chris Cairns 62 3320 33.53 5 218 29.40 13 4.13
Kapil Dev 131 5248 31.05 8 434 29.64 23 1.41

In his pomp, not only was Imran the best allrounder, he was also the best bowler in the world. At a time when a connoisseur of fast bowling would have been spoilt for choice, for there were so many great ones going around, Imran was still the best of the lot with an average of 17.77 and a strike rate of less than 44 balls per wicket. Hadlee was next in line, with three West Indians following in their wake. The top six all averaged less than 25, which is also a telling commentary on the balance of power between bat and ball during that period.

Top bowlers in the world between 1980 and 1988 (Qual: 150 wickets)
Bowler Tests Wickets Average Strike rate 5WI/ 10WM
Imran Khan 48 236 17.77 43.6 18/ 5
Richard Hadlee 51 284 19.03 47.0 28/ 7
Malcolm Marshall 58 297 20.20 44.7 18/ 3
Joel Garner 49 210 20.62 51.8 7/ 0
Michael Holding 45 184 23.38 50.3 9/ 1
Dennis Lillee 35 171 24.07 52.3 11/ 3

What's more surprising, though, is the sort of numbers Imran racked up as a batsman when his glory days as a bowler were over. He was technically sound and could play with the straightest of bats, and when he worked on his patience and temperament, the result was a batsman who could play long innings and adapt his game according to the needs of the hour. In the last five years of his career, Imran averaged 59.69 in 28 Tests, and four of his six Test hundreds came during this period. Among those who scored at least 1500 runs during this period, only New Zealand's Martin Crowe had a better average.

Admittedly, the average was boosted by the number of not-outs he notched up - 11 in 37 innings - but that further illustrates how difficult he was to dismiss during the last years of his Test career. Even Javed Miandad had a lower average, though he scored almost 1000 more runs than Imran.

Highest batting averages between Jan 1, 1987 and Jan 6, 1992 (Qual: 1500 runs)
Batsman Tests Runs Average 100s/ 50s
Martin Crowe 24 2186 60.72 8/ 8
Imran Khan 28 1552 59.69 4/ 9
Graham Gooch 32 3282 55.62 8/ 18
Andrew Jones 20 1703 54.93 5/ 6
Javed Miandad 35 2512 54.60 8/ 10
Mark Taylor 28 2565 53.43 7/ 17
Robin Smith 28 2118 52.95 6/ 15
Shoaib Mohammad 32 2175 50.58 7/ 8

One of the highlights of Imran's career was his battles against the best team of his times, West Indies. As a batsman he wasn't as effective against them, but as a bowler he was superb, taking 80 wickets at 21.18. Comparing the stats of the four superstar allrounders of that era against West Indies, it's clear that three of them raised their games against them - Hadlee and Kapil too had terrific numbers against them - but the disappointment was Botham, who struggled with both bat and ball.

The four allrounders against West Indies
Player Tests Runs Average 100s/ 50s Wickets Average 5WI/ 10WM
Imran Khan 18 775 27.67 1/ 3 80 21.18 6/ 1
Richard Hadlee 10 389 32.41 1/ 1 51 22.03 4/ 1
Kapil Dev 25 1079 30.82 3/ 4 89 24.89 4/ 1
Ian Botham 20 792 21.40 0/ 4 61 35.18 3/ 0

Perhaps even more impressive than his individual performances against West Indies was the manner in which Imran inspired his team to raise their level against them. He led them on three occasions versus West Indies between 1985 and 1990, and each series was a classic, with each team winning a Test every time. Imran the bowler was outstanding in two of those series, taking 18 wickets at 11.05 in 1986, and 23 wickets at 18.08 in 1988. During that period Pakistan was the only team to win more than one Test against West Indies. (In complete contrast, England won one and lost 11 Tests against them during this period.)

In fact, one of the stand-out aspects of Imran Khan was the manner in which he lifted his performances when he became captain: in the 48 Tests in which he led Pakistan he averaged 52.34 with the bat and 20.26 with the ball; in the 40 Tests in which he wasn't captain his batting average was 25.43 and his bowling average 25.53. Imran's batting average of 52.34 is among the highest by captains - only four have led in 40 or more Tests and averaged higher. Sunil Gavaskar and Allan Border were among those whose batting average as captain was lower than Imran's. Under him, Pakistan also won 14 Tests, which remains the joint-highest (along with Miandad) for Pakistan.

Best Test averages as captains (Qual: 40 Tests)
Batsman Tests Runs Average 100s/ 50s
Brian Lara 47 4685 57.83 14/ 19
Greg Chappell 48 4209 55.38 13/ 19
Peter May 41 3080 54.03 10/ 15
Ricky Ponting 73 6429 53.57 19/ 34
Imran Khan 48 2408 52.34 5/ 14
Steve Waugh 57 3714 52.30 15/ 10
Clive Lloyd 74 5233 51.30 14/ 27
Allan Border 93 6623 50.94 15/ 36
Sunil Gavaskar 47 3449 50.72 11/ 14
Graeme Smith 78 6564 50.10 19/ 26

Imran's ODI numbers were pretty impressive too, though his bowling average of almost 27 didn't do complete justice to his skills. He averaged only slightly more than one wicket per match, but that was also because of the stress fracture, which severely curtailed his bowling. When on song, even the best of batsmen found him difficult to handle: in Sharjah in 1985, he destroyed the Indian batting line-up with figures of 6 for 14, though Pakistan ended up losing by 38 runs.

As a batsman, Imran was a terrific matchwinner: in matches that Pakistan won, he averaged almost 47, which was well above his overall batting average of 33.41. Among Pakistan's batsmen who scored at least 2000 runs in wins, only four have a higher average. Given that he was a man for the big occasions, it's hardly surprising that his World Cup stats are better than his overall career numbers: his only ODI century came in a World Cup game, against Sri Lanka in 1983, while he is one of only six bowlers to take 25 or more wickets at an average of less than 20.

Best bowling averages in World Cup games (Qual: 25 wickets)
Bowler ODIs Wickets Average Econ rate
Shane Bond 16 30 17.26 3.50
Glenn McGrath 39 71 18.19 3.96
Brad Hogg 21 34 19.23 4.12
Imran Khan 28 34 19.26 3.86
Shane Warne 17 32 19.50 3.83
Muttiah Muralitharan 31 53 19.69 3.83

S Rajesh is stats editor of Cricinfo

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Posted by   on (November 4, 2010, 19:49 GMT)

Correction Sunil Gavaskar> Len hutton. Gundapa Vishwanath> Miandad. Kapil> Imran. Sachin Tendulkar> Don Bradman. Murlidharan> Harbhajan Singh. Warne> Anil Kumble. Adam Gilchrist> MS Dhoni. McGrath> Srinath. Garfield Sobers>>> then anyone.

Posted by AhmadSaleem on (November 4, 2010, 18:59 GMT)

Anil Kumble> Shane Warne...... Harbhajan Singh> Muttiah Muralitharan...... Sachin Tendulkar>Don Bradman..... MS Dhoni> Adam Gilchrist..... Javagal Srinath>Glenn McGrath...... Gundapa Vishwanath> Javed Miandad..... Sunil Gavaskar> Len Hutton..... Kapil Dev>Imran Khan..... Ravi Jadeja> Sir Garfield Sobers. Right, now my dear friends will not have any problem with this.

Posted by mozzi_786 on (November 4, 2010, 5:43 GMT)

I am disappointed my post was not posted. Still will maintain that Imran was a greater allround cricketer than Kapil though. Please remove Ranjan Mishra's comments on Indian Muslims as it will hurt lot of people sentiments.

Posted by AhmadSaleem on (November 3, 2010, 18:50 GMT)

Agree with cricketchopper on almost every matter except the exclusion of Hadlee and Hutton. In my opinion, Hadlee was better than McGrath and Richards didn't play that much test cricket

Posted by SubsB on (November 3, 2010, 14:41 GMT)

This has refference to the list "ESPN Legends of Cricket"....makes me wonder about the fact that Kapil Dev - ranked 22, who was voted the cricketer of the century in India is ranked below Gavaskar - ranked 10 and Tendulkar - ranked 7. also Akram - ranked 21 - in all probability among bowlers Marshall - ranked 16 can only be above him as a bowler. Lillee did not perform on the sub continent pitches...this points to a clear bias among the 15 elite judges consisting of mainly former greats and cricket experts

Posted by SubsB on (November 3, 2010, 11:06 GMT)

Another of way of looking at the comparison would be to look at the % of runs that each of these all rounders scored against each opostion and the % of wickets that they took against each opostion...when Kapil Dev played for India...India rarely took more 13 - 14 opposition wickets per test match...I guess it must be lower against the top most team of the time - West Indies. Botham never performed against West Indies. Imran was always part of a better team in his time where as Kapil was always part of one of the weaker teams in world cricket

Posted by GoldenAsif on (November 2, 2010, 20:58 GMT)

Correction:

I actually meant Sydney 1976 (not Perth 1974) - Imran Khan too 12/165. And Wasim's bowling averge was 23.62

Posted by AhmadSaleem on (November 2, 2010, 20:04 GMT)

OMG..... I can't believe it. First they tried to prove Tendulkar better than Bradman. Now Dev over Imran and after Bhaji's retirement, I think they would probably suggest him better than Muralitharan. What great fans these players have got in fact fanatics should I say.

Posted by AhmadSaleem on (November 2, 2010, 19:48 GMT)

@Mishra: I agree with you hundred percent but only if you agree with me that Ijaz Ahmad was way better than Gavaskar and Tendulkar. :p. Kapil lies in the league of Chris Cairns and Ian Botham mate. Imran, Sobers and Miller were a notch above them.Richard Hadllee and Wasim Akram were pure bowling all rounders and their battings were not that good to cement them a place in their teams. Otherwise, they were great cricketers(among the greatest bowlers ever but certainly not categorized them among the greatest genuine all rounders). Botham and Dev were genuine but we can neither classify them among greatest batsmen nor among greatest bowlers ever. But in case of Imran and Sobers, one was among the greatest bowlers in the history and second was one of the greatest bat with also having a strong record in other department, good enough to win them a place in their teams

Posted by absha1 on (November 2, 2010, 19:34 GMT)

The most interesting question which arises from this stats analyses is how fast bowling all rounders get a bum rap compared to batting all rounders, whose figures are psychologically inflated. Here is the big question; which Imran was greater? 1. The guy in the middle of his career, who averaged 40 with the bat and 17 with the ball. The difference in average is 23. 2. The guy at the end of his career, who averaged 73 with the bat and 33 with the ball? The difference in average is 40. Who would you take? The great fast bowling all rounder, or the great batting all rounder? Purely, are they equal? Just consider the dominant skill. Does the fast bowler who averages 17 have a greater impact on the game than the batsman who averages 73? Balance them with the second skill. 40 (batting) versus 33 (bowling)? I would always take the bowler to win a test, but each to their own. Answer it, and then compare Imran to Sobers. Who do you take? Is Sobers ahead of Imran, or an equal, or behind?

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S Rajesh Stats editor Every week the Numbers Game takes a look at the story behind the stats, with an original slant on facts and figures. The column is edited by S Rajesh, ESPNcricinfo's stats editor in Bangalore. He did an MBA in marketing, and then worked for a year in advertising, before deciding to chuck it in favour of a job which would combine the pleasures of watching cricket and writing about it. The intense office cricket matches were an added bonus.

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