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A terribly awkward romance

In the last 50 years, four specialist English legspinners have played just 24 Tests. What's behind England's complicated relationship with legspin bowling?

Richard H Thomas

May 14, 2014

Comments: 39 | Text size: A | A

Scott Borthwick is expected to make his Test debut, Sydney, January 2, 2014
Scott Borthwick is the first English legspinner to take a Test wicket in close to a decade and a half © Getty Images
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Players/Officials: Shane Warne | Ian Salisbury | Tich Freeman
Teams: Australia | England

"Can he spin it?" we would ask amid rumours of a new legspinner. Usually
 he could. "Can he control it?" asked the selection committee; usually he couldn't. Thereafter he was treated more suspiciously
 than an unexploded doodlebug. Fast bowlers are sweaty artisans with hammers. Medium-pacers are architects with precisely sharpened pencils. Contrastingly, legspinners are eccentrics in the garden shed. They might invent eight variations of the googly or blow the roof off.

When the leggies come on, crowds are all nudges, elbows and eyebrows - ready, says Simon Briggs, for "what improbable feat might follow". When Denzil Batchelor first saw Kent's Doug Wright and his brisk, bouncy run-up he whistled like "a sailor whistles at a new wife in a new port". But, as Stephen Brenkley observes, if some "chubby blond kid" can became one of the most influential cricketers of all time, legspin "can take you places".

Gideon Haigh after all, reminds us that it accounts for history's two most famous deliveries - Eric Hollies' googly to Bradman in 1948 and Shane Warne's outrageous "ball of the century" in 1993. The incentive is developing
 a novelty batsmen may find unfathomable;
 the charges against are that legspinners are eccentric, erratic and unsuited to English greentops. With fame, fortune and diamond ear studs waiting, there will always be a few choosing to strengthen their wrists instead of their fingers.

But who and where are they? Four specialist English legspinners have played just 24 Tests
 in the last 50 years. When a wrist
spinner last took a five-fer, notes Mike Selvey, 
Harold Macmillan was prime minister. Derek Abrahams describes them as common as "honest politicians", their wickets, according to Lawrence Booth, rarer than "Australian sympathy for the Poms". If England's relationship with KP has been vexatious at least it was long-lasting; its relationship with legspin has been equally troublesome but far more fleeting.

Charges of eccentricity are unfounded;
 leggies aren't flaky, they're optimistic and 
dogged. At Lord's in 1900, Bernard Bosanquet's newly-invented googly claimed its first victim: Leicestershire's Samuel Coe was stumped off
 a delivery that bounced four times. Through dedicated resolution, the googly survived.
 Tommy Greenhough had his Lancashire contract cancelled after falling 40 feet in an industrial accident aged 16 - injuries to his wrists and ankles were so severe a cricketing career seemed inconceivable, yet he recovered to play Test cricket.

Eric Hollies had an "innate cheerfulness" wrote Michael Billington, and Walter Robins epitomised the brotherhood's pluck. "There was something about his cricket," concluded RC Robertson- Glasgow, suggesting "half-holidays and kicking your hat along the pavement". Ian Salisbury, for so long almost England's only exponent, reports the value of having "a point of difference" but that during his apprenticeship it often occurred he might've picked "something a little easier… " But he, like all the others, stuck to his task.

The next charge is that when the wheels come off, the wagon doesn't come meekly to rest on the hard shoulder. At Adelaide in 2012, South Africa's Imran Tahir recorded excruciating match figures of 37-1-260-0. When Victoria posted their record 1107, legspinner Arthur Mailey took most of the tap - a jaw-dropping 4 for 362. On Bryce McGain's toe-curling Australian debut at Cape Town in 2009, his first spell of 11-2-102-0 and match figures of 18-2-149-0 "did not flatter", according to Vic Marks. It would be nice to report that he bounced back but when leggies implode bouncing is not the issue; they can't stop bowling full tosses.

 
 
In providing the ultimate role model of Warne, Australia may have further indirectly damaged English legspinning. Salisbury contends that Warne made it fashionable but remains the unreachable bar
 

Of the ten most expensive Test match figures, legspinners account for all but two. Notions they are untidier than undergraduate dormitories are at least plausible. Most clubs have their own legspinning folklore, usually featuring discourses of profligacy. We knew one that suffered from a painful affliction called "legspinner's neck" - a permanent crick caused by years of jerking his head to watch the ball sail into the next postcode. The "expensive" tag sticks; Arthur Mailey bowled like a "millionaire" and there is consensus, too, regarding Doug Wright - "unplayable" one day and "frustrating" the next according to Brenkley; "engaging" yet "exasperating" according to David Foot. David Frith describes Wright as "quiet" and "calm" with "a touch of genius", but also describes his wickets as "costly". Such was his occasional waywardness for Kent, Colin Cowdrey described it as akin to playing with ten men.

Of those who took more than 100 wickets 
for England (there are 44) Wright's are the second-most expensive. In his defence, he was unlucky. Batchelor recalled his best deliveries beating the batsman, but also "sadly missing the stumps". Wright himself claimed in his finest ever over he beat Bradman twice. The rest went for boundaries. "Father" Marriott, also of Kent, took 11 for 96 in his only Test for England and was, according to Allan Massie, annoyed 
by "the fallacious notion that a wrist-spinner could not bowl as accurately as any other type
 of bowler". The statistics suggest this may not have been as fallacious as he claimed, but they are not inherently expensive; England's five-most successful wicket-taking Test leggies have better economy rates than Steve Harmison, Darren Gough, Matthew Hoggard, Mitchell Johnson, Brett Lee and Dale Steyn.

They may be scarce nowadays, but until the '70s, numerous county legspinners took bucketfuls of wickets and regularly dismantled batting line-ups - a generation of home-grown twirlers, says David Frith, with "long, productive county careers". The biggest of these achievers was the smallest of men and another Kent bowler - 5ft 2in Tich Freeman. In a career straddling the First War, he dismissed an astonishing 3776 batsmen. In each of eight seasons between 1928 and 1935 he took over 200 wickets, and in the first of them, over 300 - the only bowler ever to do so. He claimed five in an innings 386 times and ten in a match 140 times.

Shane Warne did those things 69 and 12 times, respectively. According to RL Arrowsmith, Tich was "the greatest wicket-taker county cricket has ever known". Most agree that he wasn't as deadly in Tests, but 66 wickets in 12 matches is none-too-shabby, especially with a strike rate, bowling average and economy rate all lower than Botham and Anderson, to name but two.

Then there was Eric Hollies. Doing Bradman with a googly was no fluke; the week before he'd bowled him with a regulation legspinner but noticed The Don couldn't pick the wrong 'un. At least at Edgbaston there is a stand named after Hollies to reflect the two decades of toil before and after that single delivery. Roly Jenkins of Worcestershire would beseech the ball to "spin for Roly" as he released it. Mike Vockins suggests he probably talked out as many batsmen as he bowled but there were plenty of both; county colleague Martin Horton remembered a dedicated bowler always refining his technique. Disliking batsmen sweeping him, Roly once wished horrible things on Bill Alley's chickens.

In addition there was Tommy Mitchell, Jim Sims and a legion of others, sometimes expensive but wicket-takers all. To the doubters now shouting "helpful uncovered pitches" only two words are needed to counter: Mushtaq Ahmed. "Statistically, romantically and emotionally," according to Chris Adams, "the best player to ever pull on a Sussex shirt." He took 459 wickets between 2003 and 2007. Ian Salisbury concludes that Mushtaq found the right club and the right pitch: "A slow, low one at Hove".


Eric Hollies bowls, England v Australia, 5th Test, The Oval, 2nd day, August 16, 1948
Eric Hollies put in two decades of toil before and after the single delivery that he is mostly known for © Getty Images
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In sum, it isn't temperament, pitches or potency, and the case for habitual untidiness is moot. So why has our relationship with legspin never progressed further than smooching on the sofa? Between Salisbury's last Test in 2000 and Scott Borthwick's first in 2014, English legspin at the highest level comprised 18 wicketless overs from Chris Schofield. Collectively, Tich Freeman, Tommy Mitchell, Eric Hollies, Jim Sims, Peter Smith, Roly Jenkins and Tommy Greenhough took 12,920 Championship wickets, yet altogether appeared in fewer Tests than Monty Panesar. Since the '60s, the art has all but disappeared and little wonder; seemingly selectors trust them less than a toddler with an iTunes password. As a youngster, Salisbury turned to wristspin despite having "no role models and no one to watch".

Goodness knows we've been taught enough hard lessons from Australia lately, but here we may have
 to take another. Aussie legspinners are as popular as beer in a barracks. Hordern to Mailey to Grimmett, O'Reilly to McCool to Benaud to O'Keefe to Higgs. This was a seamless, almost blue-blooded lineage. Then, the greatest of all - Warne, but overlapping with Stuart MacGill, who Frith suggests was almost Warne's equal. One English legspinner took over 100 Test wickets; four Australians took more than 200. Australia's top five leggies in the last 125 years took 1,524 wickets in 316 Tests, England's top five took 327 in 91.

Long-standing familiarity with the art has enabled Australia to develop their own and disarm England's. Batchelor for example, reports that in Australia, Freeman was "all but powerless". So used to such stuff were the Aussies, he wrote, "they'd developed footcraft" in self-defence "as fish developed gills".

There was no deliberate succession of Australian legspinners, suggests David Frith, "but they were there, one after the other". His compelling explanation is that while traditionally English cricket is more hesitant, Australian confidence abounds. While the English look for the leash, Australia give it the lash. When Tiger O'Reilly claimed the English never understood legspin "so they killed it", he implicitly suggested every circumstance was loaded against it. He would have also meant, suggests Frith, that legspin needs daring - from bowlers, captains and selectors. Daring indeed, like saying "have a fifth" to Warne after four wickets in his first four Tests. Frith's compressed analysis is that legspin expresses character and "Australians are by nature more adventurous".

Moreover, in providing the ultimate role model of Warne, Australia may have further indirectly damaged English legspinning. Salisbury contends that Warne made it fashionable but remains the unreachable bar. He is an "outlier" and a "freak of nature", argues Salisbury, and such was his uniquely sublime talent, he could bowl beautiful, controlled, legspin "ball after ball with his eyes closed". It is unfair to measure everyone against the Warne yardstick, he suggests, noting that new batsmen are not instantly compared with Tendulkar or Lara.

Education and preparation are key now, claims Salisbury, implicitly contesting Tiger O'Reilly's advice that when legspinners see coaches approaching they should "run for their lives". Salisbury would agree with Tiger though, that self-sufficiency is critical. With England finally investing - though perhaps not enough - in specialist spin bowling coaching, the emphasis is on self-diagnosis and independence. Young spinners construct their own development manuals, says Salisbury, transcending the numerous different coaches and clubs encountered during development. The self-made templates are personal portfolios including scientific metrics, biomechanics, and tactical planning so that adjustments are made on the field, "not in the dressing room two hours later". Recognising the hard realities of professional cricket, without such personalised blueprints, "that kid may not be bowling spin next year", warns Salisbury.

In supporting every aspect of legspin, says Salisbury, bowlers become "their own best coaches" so that by their first Test matches all manageable performance elements are under control and heads are clear to focus on taking wickets. With 
the involvement of colleagues like Peter Such and Richard Dawson, Salisbury feels "things are heading the right way" but there is more 
to attend to than just wrists and fingers. Again emphasising English cricket's underlying conservatism, he asserts that bowling coaches - most often pace bowlers - are generally nervous of legspin and should be more confident.

England cricket is currently showing some conservative tendencies and a mistrust of mavericks, so immediate embracing of Australian-style audacity looks unlikely. But, despite legspinning heroes being more global than local, in bowlers like Borthwick, Will Beer at Sussex, and, as Salisbury keenly points out, young Matt Taylor of Northants, there are reasons to be chipper. You must be "brave" as a young leggie, observes Stephen Brenkley. It requires "patience and practice" says Intikhab Alam. Toss in investment, science and trust and we have the answer. Then England's affair with the noblest of bowling arts can move from smooching on the sofa to something altogether more exciting.

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Posted by shillingsworth on (May 16, 2014, 21:53 GMT)

@denbrowne - No offence taken, just setting the record straight. Only saw Hobbs at the end of his career by which time he struggled to get a game ahead of East and Acfield, probably for the reason you highlight. I well remember being told exactly the same back then about how hopeless 'modern cricketers' were. Nothing changes, does it?

Posted by R_U_4_REAL_NICK on (May 16, 2014, 18:22 GMT)

@jb633 (post on May 15, 2014, 21:20 GMT): No apologies needed; irks aired and shared are arguments spared... (I just made that up and don't know what it means either). Lets make a team of leg-spinners and pitch it against whatever test team England can muster up later...

Posted by denbrowne on (May 16, 2014, 15:56 GMT)

Shillingsworth - ok, my little joke wasn't that funny & sorry if you're offended. But as you say, Hobbs' Test record was poor - and the article is concerned with top level rather than county cricket. Did you see him play? He had a really whippy action, but not enough control imho. When I was first watching cricket in the 60s there was an awful lot of sentimental guff about the Golden Age of cricket & worshipping leg spin was part of the package, along with being told that all post-war cricketers were rubbish, and that was the point of my little jest. Anyway, enjoy the new season

Posted by   on (May 15, 2014, 22:17 GMT)

shillingsworth. Yes. Kerry O'Keefe was a joke. He admits it himself. He was quite a dogged batsman though. Australia has picked lots of dross wrist spinners who have crashed and burned over the years. They have also produced some very decent finger spinners too. Mallet who you mentioned. Ian Johnson, Bruce Yardley, Ray Bright, Tim May, Colin Miller. All very decent bowlers at Test level. The whole "wrist spin good, finger spin bad" mentality is nonsense. As I have said before statistically at all levels of the game wrist spin is the most ineffective bowling style. Even a quality leg spinner like Stuart MacGill needed to be protected and looked after at Test level in a way a quality finger spinner would never have to be. Irman Tahir, a very good first class leg spinner, just couldn't handle playing Test cricket or his South Africa relying on him to bowl 20-30 overs in a day. Like it or not wrist spin is rarely effective because it is so hard to bowl accurately with hard spin.

Posted by jb633 on (May 15, 2014, 21:20 GMT)

@R_U_4_Real, apologies I have literally echoed your point. I hadn't read any of the comments. I agree with you 100% though. It is very frustrating, the key is to get the captaincy yourself and never take yourself off (just kidding). But, leggies seem to get so much flak and people talk about their bad days time and time again. If they bowl a bad ball it generally gets hit harder but the end result is still a 4. Same as a bad ball from a seamer.

Posted by jb633 on (May 15, 2014, 21:17 GMT)

Having bowled leg spin to a relatively high level in English cricket I think the problems with regards to the art run very deep and wont be solved any time soon. To start with the conditions are so unfavourable for leggies ; wet ball, cold days, windy conditions damp pitches etc all do nothing for the leggies. Have a look at top class leggies in England from India or Pakistan, Kaneria, Mishra, Kumble etc did not thrive here even though they were all good bowlers. Secondly and I think most importantly captains at club cricket don't have the guts or the ability to manage it. They would far rather have a medium pacer going at 2 an over than a leggie who may go at 5 but get more wickets. It does not require great skill to set a field for the seamer and their task is easier. Secondly, on a psychological level I feel there is a stigma attached to leggies. When a leg spinner bowls a bad ball, and I know this first hand it is a rank bad ball. Captains find this almost impossible to forget.

Posted by shillingsworth on (May 15, 2014, 14:29 GMT)

@John Duffield - Absolutely right. The mention of O'Keefe as part of a supposedly unbroken line of match winning leg spinners made me smile. I remembered the quote attributed to Mallett on discovering he had been omitted from the test team in favour of O'Keefe - 'Perhaps I should dye my hair and take up bowling non turning leg spinners instead'.

Posted by   on (May 15, 2014, 12:02 GMT)

Sorry but I don't buy "the Australian culture of wrist spin" at all. How many World class leg spinners have Australia produced since the Second World War? 3. Benaud, Warne and MacGill and there was 30 years between Benaud and Warne. Hardly a conveyor belt of talent. Also were are all the Australian leg spinners now? Lots of people predicted that Warne and MacGill would inspire a whole generation of wrist spinners to follow after them. They haven't. That is because despite having all the encouragement in the World wrist spin is incredibly difficult to bowl well. Always has been always will be. At least the Australians have realised that a decent off spinner like Nathan Lyon is a much better option than a wrist spinner flinging down half trackers and full tosses. Lyon is going to have much more successful career than any of his wrist spinning contemporaries.

Posted by   on (May 15, 2014, 10:43 GMT)

One aspect this article neglects to mention is the difference in size between English and Australian club grounds. With English real estate being so much more expensive than land in Australia some of the boundaries on English grounds can be painfully short, 30 yards or even less in some cases, while Australian club grounds I've seen photos of all seem to be a similar size to full Test grounds. This can only hurt the leg-spinner's case.

Even so, the key point is the conservatism in the English game, with captains preferring an over of five singles to one of five dots and a six, even though any sensible leggie will tell you the latter is a mis-hit away from a wicket maiden, while the former is just five risk-free runs. Most English club captains I've encountered have no idea what they want their leg-spinners to do, and the point about Warne being an impossible ideal is well-made.

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