Hafeez's extension 'well over 15 degrees' - ICC report
Mohammad Hafeez's elbow extension went as far as 31 degrees under testing, according to an ICC report obtained by ESPNcricinfo.
A bowler is allowed a maximum elbow extension - the extent to which he bends and straightens his elbow while delivering the ball - of 15 degrees, and the report notes that during the test conducted on November 24, every delivery Hafeez bowled was above the permissible limit.
The test was conducted by five biomechanics experts, including three PhD students from the Loughborough University, in the presence of ICC representative Ben Leaver, and the coach advisor Karl Krikken. The report stated: "The bowler appeared to emulate his match-bowling action during the assessment. Between the upper-arm-horizontal and ball release, the bowler extended his elbow by well over 15 degrees during all deliveries."
The report concluded that the average range of elbow extension was 27 degrees, with a relatively small standard deviation of three degrees. His average upper-arm horizontal flex was recorded at 23 degrees, while the maximum elbow flexion was found to be between 26 and 27 degrees.
According to the report, Hafeez was only tested for his stock delivery, and bowled regular offspin from both round and over the wicket. He delivered a total of 24 balls, of which three were discarded due to a wrong line and length.
Hafeez, 34, had been reported for a suspect action after the first Test against New Zealand in Abu Dhabi as the umpires were concerned about the legality of four of his deliveries - 28.4 and 51.4 on day three, and 29.5 and 33.4 on day four. He had earlier run into trouble for his action during the Champions League T20, being reported by the umpires after Lahore Lions' game against Dolphins in Bangalore.
Before the tests, Hafeez had stated that he was confident he would overcome the scrutiny on his action. He, however, also emphasized that he had never viewed himself as much of a bowler, and that he was focussed on his batting in international cricket.
Umar Farooq is ESPNcricinfo's Pakistan correspondent. @kalson