Aakash Chopra
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Aakash Chopra looks at various aspects of cricket from a player's perspective

Speed or swing? How about both?

Most fast bowlers wish they were skilled in both arts. And though physics and genetics play a role in determining who gets what, it's not impossible to achieve the golden combo

Aakash Chopra

October 7, 2010

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Zaheer Khan works up pace, India v Australia, 1st Test, Bangalore, 2nd day, October 10, 2008
Zaheer Khan: the position of the wrist behind the ball helps him swing it © Getty Images
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Mitchell Johnson, despite clinching a five-for in the first Test in Mohali, might happily concede some of his pace in exchange for being able to get the ball to swing. He was candid enough to confess his inability to swing it consistently. Then again, Praveen Kumar, who swings the ball appreciably, probably longs to add those few extra miles of pace.

The combination of pace and swing is an enviable one and very hard to achieve. If swinging the ball is a difficult skill to acquire, bowling quick has a lot to do with genetics. But just like Johnson discovers that crucial swing every now and then before losing it again, it's possible to increase one's pace - though you can only do so to a certain extent before hitting your threshold. So what makes the ball swing? And how does one bowl fast?

Swing
While science confirms that shine plays a huge role in determining the direction in which the ball swings, there's still only one method to swing the ball when it's new. Since both sides are equally shiny, the bowler's wrist and seam position dictate the ball's path after release. The ball must be delivered with an upright seam position and enough backspin to ensure that the seam stays straight when it hits the ground. If the wrist is not behind the ball, or has fallen sideways, the ball will not travel correctly.

You'll notice this difference in the actions of Zaheer Khan and Ishant Sharma. While Zaheer's wrist is firmly behind the ball at the time of release and imparts enough backspin, Ishant's wrist falls sideways and prompts the ball to tilt heavily towards the leg side upon release.

Ideally you should point the seam in the direction in which you want it to swing. To bowl an outswinger, tilt the seam slightly towards first slip; for an inswinger, towards leg slip.

Most bowlers alter their point of release to suit the swing they are trying to achieve. An outswing bowler like Matthew Hoggard maintains some distance between his ear and the bowling arm, making his action slightly round-arm, while Javagal Srinath, an inswing bowler, used to keep his arm as close to his ear as possible.

Once the shine on one side becomes prominent, the air pressure starts to assist the swing. The ball moves from high static pressure, which is the shinier side, towards low static pressure - the rough side. There's an early separation of air at the shiny surface, which makes it act like a ramp, pushing the ball towards the direction the rough side is facing. But you still need to maintain the correct wrist and seam position for swing.

The dynamics change once the ball gets old and starts to reverse. There has been a lot of talk about how one side gets heavier thanks to the application of sweat and saliva, which supposedly makes the ball swing towards the heavier side. But science doesn't buy that theory. According to research, when the ball reaches a particular stage, the rough side acts like a ramp and makes the ball move in the direction the shiny side is facing.

Science may explain the phenomenon, but the fact remains that reverse-swing, if executed properly, is very difficult to negotiate. While the seam position is a giveaway when the ball is new, it's of not much help to a batsman facing the old ball, because the same rules don't apply. Reverse-swing is truly effective when the ball swings very late, for which the bowler must position the seam opposite to that for a new ball. Wasim and Waqar were masters of this art.*

Speed
Swing may be difficult to master but speed is tougher to generate. For starters, everybody has either the fast-twitch fibres (white) or slow-twitch ones (red) in their body. These determine whether you can be a quick bowler, like Brett Lee, or a medium-pacer, like Praveen. While fast-twitch fibres give you a definite edge, there are other factors that help an individual generate pace.

 
 
The force generated from the run-up, the landing, the hip movement, the shoulder rotation and the wrist movement is translated into the speed of the ball. The more aligned the movements, the better the outcome
 

First, a proper run-up. A bowler must accelerate as he gets closer to the stumps, while keeping both arms close to the body (close levers ensure no wastage of energy).

Second, the momentum generated by the run-up is transferred to the jump. That's why most genuine quick bowlers - Imran Khan, Brett Lee, Malcom Marshall - have a reasonably high jump.

Third is the landing. When the front foot hits the ground, the force generated is transferred to the hip before moving upwards. The bowler rotates the shoulder, which uses the force it receives from the movement in the hip. This force is then transferred to the wrist. The result: the force generated from the run-up, the landing, the hip movement, the shoulder rotation and the wrist movement is translated into the speed of the ball. The more aligned the movements, the better the outcome.

Your fibres don't limit you, either. I've seen people increase their speed as they gain power and better alignment. Ajit Agarkar is one such player who started as a medium-pacer (he even had the wicketkeeper standing up to the stumps in Under-16 cricket) but grew into a genuine quick.

From the start of the run-up to the end of the follow-through, it's important to keep the body aligned in the direction of your target - the batsman. The bowler must stay as close to the stumps as possible after delivering, without getting into the danger zone, while moving towards the batsman. A lot of bowlers, Zaheer and Praveen among them, are guilty of either having no follow-throughs or very limited ones, while others tend to fall towards the off side, killing the momentum and with it the speed.

A bowler must also be careful about the order in which his limbs move in his action. If the shoulder begins to move before the hip has completed its action, the hip will stop contributing to the building up of momentum.

Swing makes a bowler feel like a magician, someone who can get the ball to move in the air at his command, while speed feeds his hunger to be ferocious. There's no better sight for a quick bowler than seeing his prey, the batsman, jump around with fear in his eyes, not knowing which way the ball will move or how fast it will get there. But as exciting as that may sound, it's equally difficult to master both crafts.

Former India opener Aakash Chopra is the author of Beyond the Blues, an account of the 2007-08 Ranji Trophy season. His website is here and his Twitter feed here

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Posted by vivek_tyagi on (October 9, 2010, 23:50 GMT)

@Balumekka: First of all Akash never mentioned Zak as FAST, he was only mentioned to describe swing.. besides only 2-3 examples could be given, so don't sound so disappointed just because your favourite bowler's name wasn't mentioned. It was just an example, not a fast bowling ranking order.

Posted by blackie on (October 9, 2010, 22:24 GMT)

This is a very good article. Two observations though. One of the best at pace and swing, Malcolm Marshall broke two of the 'rules'- he usually kept his elbows pointed outward during his run up and his run up was usually angled rather than straight. I guess every rule has exceptions!!

Posted by Balumekka on (October 9, 2010, 15:11 GMT)

Im confused about Akash's definitions of "Fast". ZAK? has he ever bowled >140km/h? What about Lasith Malinga? Fast (regularly bowling at 140 km/h) and a big swinger with slinging action... He has got easily the best and most successful in-swinging yokers at the moment.

Posted by ShahidUsman on (October 9, 2010, 14:26 GMT)

Good info about speed and the swing and how the run up and the leap works before you deliver the ball. But seriously, it is not imossible at all to possess both speed and swing. Pakistan has always produced bowlers with such skills from Imran Khan to Muhammad Aamir. I was reading commentary on cricinfo today and somebody called Praveen Kumar the sultan of swing. This is just a disgrace for swing bowlers all over the world. Praveen doesn't even fall in the top 50 and with due respect to all my Indian fellows, India itself has better swing bowlers than Praveen in shape of Zaheer Khan and several others. But I just wonder when a genuine fast bowler will come forward in a country that holds more than 1.2 billion people who will genuinely be comparable with Pakistani and Australian fast bowlers.

Posted by Harmony111 on (October 9, 2010, 10:26 GMT)

Ok fine so Ajit Agrkar is not a quick bowler. Well then why is Glenn McGrath labeled so? He was slower than Agarkar most of the times? And Ambrose used to swung the ball? Have you guys even seen him bowling? He got the ball to move off the track and this is called seaming not swinging. Secondly, any pace bowler would get the ball to swing a lil bit. There ain't a pace bowler who can't do that else he is just not going to make it big. Bowlers like Salil Ankola & Rudy Bryson struggled because of this. The article is about the rare breed of pacers who were genuinely fast and were great swingers too. How many of that lot have been there? Ambrose/McGrath didn't swung the ball much and were not all that quick. Donald too. Bond was fast but not a grt mover. Steyn/Hoggard good candidates but ZK swings more than them. Praveen is not fast enough. Srinath was one dimensional. Venky too slow. Clarke boring. Johnson is inconsistent and not all that fast too. Shoaib was quick but swing?

Posted by evenflow_1990 on (October 9, 2010, 0:00 GMT)

this is a very informative article and his knowledge on these matters is first class. its a pity he is somewhat biased towards indian players though. i hope he is aware there are viewers on cricinfo who are not indian and also that there are good players who aren't indian. so it would be nice to include some more non indian players [there was only indifferent reference to wasim and waqar without them being added to the related links] and if he did that there would be little to complain about regarding his articles, which are otherwise fantastic to read. he was an indian cricketer, but now he is a cricket writer, so his allegiance should be towards the sport and not nationalities. he could learn from harsha bhogle on this matter.

Posted by Tokas on (October 8, 2010, 19:36 GMT)

Ahmed81 & ShaheedChicktay ...Can u guys stop whining about your great Ws and Greatest IK...this article is about technical aspect of swing and pace...make constructive comments on the article...Nobody doubts Pakistan had great Pace bowlers but this about the art..not artist!!!

Posted by   on (October 8, 2010, 19:32 GMT)

Huhhhh......what an article is this? Zaheer/Parveen? once i was reading an article on cric info in which he wrote Ishant sharma is lethal in bowling. I thought Chopra must have good knowledge about swing bowlers,speedstars? he missed S Akhtar who is currently bowling at 150+

Posted by dbping on (October 8, 2010, 19:23 GMT)

@ShaheedChicktay : A better analogy would be: Mickey Arthur writing about spin and comparing the abilities of Paul Harris and Nicky Boje and concluding that Harris was a better bowler because he flighted the ball more or gave it a lot more rip. Granted they may not be the best spinners... but Mickey knows their games inside out and can comment about them. As far as I know, a vast majority of Indians love wasim and waqar and long for bowlers with at least half their talent.

Posted by mmoosa on (October 8, 2010, 17:27 GMT)

Good article,mentions the mechanics with valid examples.I dont think the intention was to compare who the greatest quicks were.Interestingly Imran and Waqar have mediocre records in Australia whilst Wasims is below his career stats-perhaps due to less reverse swing friendly conditions? Disagree with people thinking Hadlee wasnt an attacking bowler-check his record in Auz or that slip catches are the result of non attacking line and length bowling-a perfect outswinger/leg cutter is as dangeous as any delivery in cricket and attacking bowling in every retrospect

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Aakash Chopra Aakash Chopra is the 245th Indian to represent India in Test cricket. A batsman in the traditional mould, he played 10 Tests for India in 2003-04, and has played over 120 first-class matches. He currently plays for Delhi in the Ranji Trophy; his book Beyond the Blues was an account of the 2007-08 season. Chopra made a formidable opening combination with Virender Sehwag, which was believed to be one of the reasons for India's success in Australia and Pakistan in 2003-04. He is considered one of the best close-in fielders India has produced after Eknath Solkar.

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