April 30, 2013

How to host an IPL match

Amrit Mathur
Franchises have to fork out a lot of cash, take care of a ton of logistical issues, and keep all kinds of people happy during the season
21

The IPL is like a big fat Indian wedding - grand in scale, full of glitter and glamour, noisy and garish.

When Chris Gayle smashes a ball out of the ground, fans roar in appreciation, and 34 cameras capture the action, the reactions of the team owners, the cheerleaders' steps and the mood of the spectators.

But those working behind the scenes at the IPL don't see quite the same things. They see that fans are waving Royal Challengers Bangalore flags ordered from China at a price lower than what was offered by local suppliers; they see the logos on the cheerleaders' uniforms for which sponsors pay serious money. For them, these, and other off-field factors, indicate the match is running like clockwork.

To put the big cricket party together, a franchise starts work months in advance.

The to-do list is long: import between six to ten dozen Kookaburra balls (costing US$100 each), book flights and hotel rooms (suites for the captain, coach, manager), equip the team meeting room (among the essentials: a flip chart, markers, projector), ensure players get practice and match clothing with correct sponsor branding and identification numbers, and that the overseas players get Indian SIM cards. Arrange for portable massage tables, acres of tape and strapping, and specially formulated health drinks. Hand out daily programmes to players containing information about practice timings, gym sessions, sponsor commitments, photo shoots, bat signings, media interactions and after-match parties.

This is the easy part. The non-cricket-related arrangements to stage home games are far more challenging.

Franchises have to pay to use their "home" stadiums. The standard IPL contract allows them control of the facility for about Rs 30 lakhs a game or Rs 2.4 crores (about $450,000) a season. Most of them have reached an agreement with their host state associations, some by using influential people to lobby for them, others by handing over more than the IPL-mandated 20% tickets to the association.

With tenants becoming owners during the IPL, conflict is inevitable and it takes extraordinary relationship management skills on both side to maintain peace and cordiality. In past seasons, disagreements have erupted in Kolkata, Mohali, Jaipur, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Pune, over issues ranging from allocation of tickets and seats for members to service payments.

Franchises have other organisational hurdles to cross as well. When Delhi Daredevils first came to the Kotla, the stadium didn't have floodlights, which then had to be put up in less than ten weeks. Cricket infrastructure in most Indian venues for the IPL was primitive six years ago. The stadiums were not designed keeping in mind the basic needs of spectators, like toilets or safe drinking water, let alone what was specified by the IPL. The franchises were left to make up the deficiencies.

The Daredevils franchise hired a cleaning agency a month before the Kotla's first IPL match in 2008 to get the stadium spruced up in time. We discovered, not to our surprise, that there were parts of the ground that had not had met a brush or a bottle of cleaning liquid for a long time.

At IPL games, a franchise serves food to around 6000 people in its hospitality stands; these are spectators who pay between Rs 5000 to Rs 20,000 per ticket (between $90 and $370). But some stadiums don't have kitchens or storage space, so pre-cooked food has to be brought over in refrigerated vans hours before the guests arrive.

No matter what journalists say about the IPL, the ones covering matches in Kotla will always be grateful for the fact that the stadium's toilets have improved because of the tournament.

The Daredevils franchise hired a cleaning agency a month before the Kotla's first IPL match in 2008 to get the stadium spruced up in time. We discovered that there were parts of the ground that had not had met a brush or a bottle of cleaning liquid for a long time

In-stadium entertainment is another IPL must, but PA systems at most grounds were ancient when the event first began. Franchises paid to install modern equipment, including hiring giant replay screens at grounds that didn't have them.

For back-to-back matches specialist housekeeping agencies are called in. Temporary structures, known as overlays, have to be erected to house the venue operations centre, the TV studio, the drug-testing control room, and the cheerleaders' change rooms.

When it comes to organising parking, there is never a quick fix for most franchises. Kotla, with a seating capacity of 40,000, has only 400 authorised parking slots, which are shared by players, teams, guests, sponsors and VIPs (of whom there must be at least 4000 in the city).

To hold matches, a franchise must gain a licence, granted by the police after permissions are given from practically every other government agency - the municipal corporation (for commercial branding, playing music), the electricity and fire departments (for safety), the excise department (to serve alcohol), and in Delhi, the Archaeological Survey of India, because of the stadium's proximity to the Feroz Shah Kotla fort. Getting these permissions mostly involves knocking on hundreds of doors and begging and pleading. In several cases it is sorted through a barter deal, in exchange for free tickets.

The support of the police is essential, since they deploy close to 2000 personnel for a match, do background checks on everyone who is granted accreditation, sweep the stadium for bombs and sanitise it with the help of experts and sniffer dogs. On match day, special scanners are installed and about 100 metal detectors and CCTVs are placed at strategic points. Security in Delhi is particularly strict: spectators can bring in mobile phones but not pens, bottles or coins. Kotla is the only IPL venue where flags on plastic masts are banned.

For match-day traffic control, franchises must issue a newspaper advisory (again, at considerable cost), operate a park-and-ride facility, and possibly get public transport services to run beyond normal hours. In Delhi arrangements are so thorough that a senior police officer actually signs each of the 400 valid parking stickers for the match.

Normally the police don't charge for their services. A contribution to their welfare fund and some complimentary tickets are the usual terms, but given the IPL's commercial nature, and the frequency of matches, most franchises now pay anything from Rs 50 lakhs to Rs 1 crore (about $180,000) per season towards that end. They also hire about 300 private security guards and 30 bouncers, who cost about Rs 2000 ($37) each, per game.

The myth that Indian cricket is run by a non-profit charitable organisation has finally been buried. IPL games attract entertainment tax ranging from 15% to 25 % in different states. The tax has to paid in advance, on full stadium capacity, with a provision for refund for unsold tickets, though those refunds rarely materialise. Delhi has recently passed a law that brings even sponsorship monies under the tax net. But even as tax laws get tighter, Rajasthan, despite their battles with the cricket association and the local sports council, have managed to secure total entertainment tax exemption this season.

The IPL shares the burden of franchises by taking on the responsibility for ground and pitch preparation, equipping the dressing room, ensuring that the match referee and the third umpire have a scorer and uninterrupted TV feed, and managing drug testing, anti-corruption, accreditation and TV production.

These "central" IPL functions are executed by IMG, which also supervises the unique look and feel of each venue, manages the toss and the post-match presentation ceremony, ensures "sponsor deliverables" and prevents ambush-marketing.

Central control is necessary because technically the event belongs to the IPL, the owner and regulator; each franchise only has the right to host its matches. The IPL lays down non-negotiable guidelines to ensure consistency across venues. Franchises have limited operational freedoms; they can, for instance, organise pre-match entertainment but it must end before the toss. Of the 72 advertising perimeter spots around the ground, the IPL uses 60 for its central sponsors, while the remaining 12 are available to the franchise, subject to many conditions.

The franchises also need to plan for disaster management, conduct mock drills for spectator evacuation, make medical arrangements for players and spectators, set up food and merchandise stalls, and insure players and the event. The insurance cover must include protection of match revenue, third-party liability and, particularly in Delhi, protection against acts of terror. The ground must be sprayed with chemicals to prevent dew and fumigated to keep insects away.

The franchise must also make sure liquor is consumed only in enclosed spaces. All music must be turned off at 10pm.

Early on in the IPL, there were four FIRs (First Information Reports, or official complaints made to the Indian police) filed against me, as Daredevils' chief operating officer, for black-marketing of tickets, overcharging for food items in the stadium, betting on games, and the "indecent behaviour" of the cheerleaders. The cases were dismissed, but the complaints indicate that the on-ground operations of organising the IPL can be as nasty as facing Dale Steyn on a wet wicket.

What I learnt during my time in charge was that the two most important people in the business are the Station House Officer of the police station that has jurisdiction over the stadium, and the entertainment tax officer. You can't have a game if you don't have them on your side.

In part one of the series, we looked at how Indian business entered the world of cricket, and in part two, the impact the IPL had on players. Part four will be about how profitable or not the franchises are.

Amrit Mathur is a former manager of the Indian cricket team and currently a consultant with Delhi Daredevils

Comments have now been closed for this article

  • Animalus_Maximus on May 1, 2013, 15:15 GMT

    @Tal_Botvinnik

    "Wonder why not implement such cheerleaders like the PWI because it brings out the culture of india"

    Because there is a difference between high art that is Bharatnatyam and American style cheerleading. It is a disgrace that Roy is trivializing high forms of dance by making dancers break into classical moves the moment someone hits a four. But don't expect anything better from him.

  • passionatecricbug on May 1, 2013, 9:11 GMT

    "there were parts of the ground that had not had met a brush or a bottle of cleaning liquid for a long time". This tells a lot. Forget about the big questions like floodlights and giant displays. I wonder what the state association used to do with their match revenues and the money they received from the BCCI. Share it, just like wolves share their kill and forget about improving the facilities?

  • on April 30, 2013, 17:18 GMT

    eagerly awaiting part 4. very very insightful.

  • on April 30, 2013, 13:54 GMT

    Amazing article. Just highlights how doing any commercial venture is a nightmare in this country.

  • ToTellUTheTruth on April 30, 2013, 13:33 GMT

    Wow, just yesterday, I was wondering about the logistics of hosting a match (IPL or non-IPL). With IPL and it's glitz, it has become a curiosity. Thanks for shedding light on this unseen part of a cricket match.

  • 20ty2yards on April 30, 2013, 12:29 GMT

    Excellent, very insightful article and definitely one of the best article that I've read in cricinfo. Keep up the good work and looking forward for future posts from you.

  • on April 30, 2013, 10:13 GMT

    Irrespective of making profit or not, we should acknowledge and appreciate the guys who work behind the screen making a smooth sail for each and every match through out the tournament. Really informative article which depicts what and all requires to conduct a event which we see and enjoy.

  • Sreevathsa_1980 on April 30, 2013, 9:32 GMT

    Superb article. Very insightful.

  • Haleos on April 30, 2013, 8:42 GMT

    Have no sympathy for the Franchise. It is not like one man is running around to do this. They have people. Moreover they do recover their costs in the long run. They did not join IPL to better the facilities. They did it to earn more. Basic needs like food and water are priced over the top i na a stadium so they recover their costs multiple times over. That is what is called business.

  • SAVIOURS on April 30, 2013, 8:22 GMT

    Thanks a lot for such an informative article. I bet nobody would have the prior-knowledge about this before this article. Will be looking more in the subsequent articles...

  • Animalus_Maximus on May 1, 2013, 15:15 GMT

    @Tal_Botvinnik

    "Wonder why not implement such cheerleaders like the PWI because it brings out the culture of india"

    Because there is a difference between high art that is Bharatnatyam and American style cheerleading. It is a disgrace that Roy is trivializing high forms of dance by making dancers break into classical moves the moment someone hits a four. But don't expect anything better from him.

  • passionatecricbug on May 1, 2013, 9:11 GMT

    "there were parts of the ground that had not had met a brush or a bottle of cleaning liquid for a long time". This tells a lot. Forget about the big questions like floodlights and giant displays. I wonder what the state association used to do with their match revenues and the money they received from the BCCI. Share it, just like wolves share their kill and forget about improving the facilities?

  • on April 30, 2013, 17:18 GMT

    eagerly awaiting part 4. very very insightful.

  • on April 30, 2013, 13:54 GMT

    Amazing article. Just highlights how doing any commercial venture is a nightmare in this country.

  • ToTellUTheTruth on April 30, 2013, 13:33 GMT

    Wow, just yesterday, I was wondering about the logistics of hosting a match (IPL or non-IPL). With IPL and it's glitz, it has become a curiosity. Thanks for shedding light on this unseen part of a cricket match.

  • 20ty2yards on April 30, 2013, 12:29 GMT

    Excellent, very insightful article and definitely one of the best article that I've read in cricinfo. Keep up the good work and looking forward for future posts from you.

  • on April 30, 2013, 10:13 GMT

    Irrespective of making profit or not, we should acknowledge and appreciate the guys who work behind the screen making a smooth sail for each and every match through out the tournament. Really informative article which depicts what and all requires to conduct a event which we see and enjoy.

  • Sreevathsa_1980 on April 30, 2013, 9:32 GMT

    Superb article. Very insightful.

  • Haleos on April 30, 2013, 8:42 GMT

    Have no sympathy for the Franchise. It is not like one man is running around to do this. They have people. Moreover they do recover their costs in the long run. They did not join IPL to better the facilities. They did it to earn more. Basic needs like food and water are priced over the top i na a stadium so they recover their costs multiple times over. That is what is called business.

  • SAVIOURS on April 30, 2013, 8:22 GMT

    Thanks a lot for such an informative article. I bet nobody would have the prior-knowledge about this before this article. Will be looking more in the subsequent articles...

  • Tal_Botvinnik on April 30, 2013, 8:18 GMT

    I don't know why they hire foreign cheerleaders because each state in india has its own variety of cultural dancing. Wonder why not implement such cheerleaders like the PWI because it brings out the culture of india to the world and also is very decent.

    WOnder why not put "flashing stumps" like in the big bash and Protective equipment to the umpires. Badges for the most dropped catches, sixers,fours, eco rate. are also not bad.

    The IPL would become more competitive and more exiting if they manage to get Pakistani players in. Also passing a rule that every team must have at least one U22 player.

  • on April 30, 2013, 8:14 GMT

    i'm really interested in knowing what happens when a captain is changed mid-season? Does the new captain get a hotel suite? And what about the old captain? Does he get down-graded? #SeriousQuestion

  • on April 30, 2013, 8:13 GMT

    This is a revealing article on IPL structure. With so much at stake in IPL, will the Franchisees make any profit out of it? If the stadium is HOUSEFULL then only i think they can make profit. of course you have in stadium ads, etc., As a fan we go and enjoy d game. But when we see so much things involved in running a IPL team, we have to pat the organisers on the back for their excellent administration of the game. And above all, if their teams keep winning they get satisfaction and take the prize purse. Carry on Franchisees and wish you all the best.

  • on April 30, 2013, 7:48 GMT

    Excellent article! But Amrit Mathur is a very good writer, better than some the so called sports writers. I remember having read his pieces in the erstwhile Sportsweek many times.

  • imsaiarasan23 on April 30, 2013, 7:06 GMT

    An indepth analysis.. Great article.. I think the distribution of tickets to all these people result in empty seats in the stadium even when the ticket counter says sold out.. I presume things like the Entertainment tax rates and the stadium rents is a factor in team owners hosting a few matches in other cities like what DD did in Raipur, KXIP in Dharamshala..

  • soumyas on April 30, 2013, 6:03 GMT

    so many things to do, so many things to take care, so much to manage... i wonder how Lalit modi was able to shift the whole tournament to SOUTH AFRICA ? it was a phenomenal achievement by him.

  • Princepurple1979 on April 30, 2013, 5:39 GMT

    Excellent article! Never ever tried to imagine that managing an event of this size would be so complex. Hats off to all you guys involved in making this tournament such a great success!

  • saifur.raffael on April 30, 2013, 5:35 GMT

    I wonder if BPL organisers and the franchises would have done 1\6 of the work like IPL does, it would have been a hit in Bangladesh..........

  • Gappistan on April 30, 2013, 4:26 GMT

    Gosh.. I had no idea so many things happen behind the scenes to conduct this wonderful tournament. Nice article Mr Mathur, surprised why is Delhi at bottom when they have people like you, TA Sekar, Viv Richards and Eric Simons in their Think Tank.

  • fullawareness on April 30, 2013, 4:12 GMT

    Amrit Mathurs article series is really informative. Its one of the most informative series I have read on cricinfo. There is no denying the importance and influence of IPL on the world cricket ecosystem, in general and the indian system in particular. The articles cover a wide range of issues and throw light on hitherto unknown issues like the economic, political, social and the immediate factors that affect the conduct of the IPL

  • vish57 on April 30, 2013, 3:58 GMT

    Good article, not an easy event to organise in India; looking forward for Part 2 of the artcle.

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  • vish57 on April 30, 2013, 3:58 GMT

    Good article, not an easy event to organise in India; looking forward for Part 2 of the artcle.

  • fullawareness on April 30, 2013, 4:12 GMT

    Amrit Mathurs article series is really informative. Its one of the most informative series I have read on cricinfo. There is no denying the importance and influence of IPL on the world cricket ecosystem, in general and the indian system in particular. The articles cover a wide range of issues and throw light on hitherto unknown issues like the economic, political, social and the immediate factors that affect the conduct of the IPL

  • Gappistan on April 30, 2013, 4:26 GMT

    Gosh.. I had no idea so many things happen behind the scenes to conduct this wonderful tournament. Nice article Mr Mathur, surprised why is Delhi at bottom when they have people like you, TA Sekar, Viv Richards and Eric Simons in their Think Tank.

  • saifur.raffael on April 30, 2013, 5:35 GMT

    I wonder if BPL organisers and the franchises would have done 1\6 of the work like IPL does, it would have been a hit in Bangladesh..........

  • Princepurple1979 on April 30, 2013, 5:39 GMT

    Excellent article! Never ever tried to imagine that managing an event of this size would be so complex. Hats off to all you guys involved in making this tournament such a great success!

  • soumyas on April 30, 2013, 6:03 GMT

    so many things to do, so many things to take care, so much to manage... i wonder how Lalit modi was able to shift the whole tournament to SOUTH AFRICA ? it was a phenomenal achievement by him.

  • imsaiarasan23 on April 30, 2013, 7:06 GMT

    An indepth analysis.. Great article.. I think the distribution of tickets to all these people result in empty seats in the stadium even when the ticket counter says sold out.. I presume things like the Entertainment tax rates and the stadium rents is a factor in team owners hosting a few matches in other cities like what DD did in Raipur, KXIP in Dharamshala..

  • on April 30, 2013, 7:48 GMT

    Excellent article! But Amrit Mathur is a very good writer, better than some the so called sports writers. I remember having read his pieces in the erstwhile Sportsweek many times.

  • on April 30, 2013, 8:13 GMT

    This is a revealing article on IPL structure. With so much at stake in IPL, will the Franchisees make any profit out of it? If the stadium is HOUSEFULL then only i think they can make profit. of course you have in stadium ads, etc., As a fan we go and enjoy d game. But when we see so much things involved in running a IPL team, we have to pat the organisers on the back for their excellent administration of the game. And above all, if their teams keep winning they get satisfaction and take the prize purse. Carry on Franchisees and wish you all the best.

  • on April 30, 2013, 8:14 GMT

    i'm really interested in knowing what happens when a captain is changed mid-season? Does the new captain get a hotel suite? And what about the old captain? Does he get down-graded? #SeriousQuestion