BANKIER, LIEUT. IAN PATRICK, Welsh Guards. Killed in action in May 1944, aged 22, played for Winchester in 1939. After making 139 against Charterhouse became an opening batsman and scored 52 at Agar's Plough in a drawn match with Eton. Second in the season's aggregates with 438, he averaged 31.29.
BARMBY, MAJOR JAMES, of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light infantry, died in action in February. Son of an old Oxford Association football Blue, Jim Barmby was a fine all-round athlete. Cricket was his best game, and gained his Oxford Authentic colours soon after coming into residence from Radley. Going into the Colonial Service, he spent most of his time abroad, but when home on leave he played regularly for Oxfordshire. In 1935 he headed the County batting averages with 39.57, a feat he repeated in 1938 with 46.55, highest score being 165 against Cornwall. A tall man, he made the most of his reach in forward play and off-side strokes. One of the most dependable bats on the side, he was also a very reliable slip fieldsman and occasionally broke up a partnership with a fastish ball.
BEESON, CAPTAIN N. W., of the Scots Guards, who was killed in action in August, played two years in the Malvern XI and scored a hundred without being dismissed in the 1938 Cambridge Freshmen's match. He did not receive a further trial and next season failed in the Seniors' match.
BENN, MAJOR ANTHONY ALASTAIR, of the East Yorkshire Regiment, fell in action towards the end of the summer. One of the finest bats ever at Wellington, he was in the eleven from 1926 to 1928. In 1927 he scored nearly 300 more runs more than any of his colleagues with an average of 51.25, excelling in a club match with 155 when opposed to S. J. Pegler, the famous South African bowler. In 1928 he played for The Rest against Lord's Schools and went in first, but failed to show his form. He played for Sandhurst, Aldershot Command, Free Foresters and Gentlemen of Yorkshire.
BLAKE, CAPTAIN J, P., M.C., a Royal Marine Commando, was killed in June, aged 26. A Cambridge Blue in 1939, he averaged 28.34, and also played occasionally for Hampshire, the county of his birth, from 1937 to 1939. His fielding earned much praise in the University match at Lord's; he caught J. M.Lomas, running in from the deep, and threw out R. B. Proud, so dismissing the most successful Oxford batsmen when each seemed set for a hundred. At Aldenham School he headed the batting averages in 1935 with 41.83, but next year when captain of the eleven, he fared less well with 23.57.
BROWNRIGG, MAJOR J. H. L., who played a little for Oxfordshire in 1939, was killed in action in February while serving with The Loyal Regiment.
BRUCE-JONES, CAPTAIN, killed in North Africa in April while serving with The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, played for Charterhouse in 1928. A good batsman and dashing field, he captained Stirlingshire for several seasons.
BULL, MAJOR R. H., M.C., killed early in the year while serving with the Scots Guards, was a very good all-round player of games at Harrow. Keeping wicket in 1929 against Eton in the 100th match between the schools, he made two good catches standing back to fast bowlers, and scored 16 not out. Although playing in the 1930 Cambridge Freshmen's match, he was not tried for the University. At Harrow he captained both the Rugby and Association football teams. Awarded the M.C. in the Tunisian campaign after taking part in the Dunkirk evacuation.
BURTON, WING COMMANDER H. F., D.S.O., D.F.C., reported missing, and in August "presumed killed," played in the Bedford School XI from 1932 to 1934. Captain in his last year, he averaged 43 for 735 runs, and went in first for The Rest against Lord's Schools but did little.
CARSON, MAJOR W. N. M.C., died of wounds in the autumn, aged 28. A hard-hitting left-handed batsman for Auckland, he failed to show his best form during the tour of the 1937 New Zealand team in England, his best scores being 85 against Surrey in the first match and 86 at Northampton; he averaged only 19 for the whole tour and did not play in any of the Tests. In January of the previous home season he, making 290, shared in a world record third-wicket partnership of 445 with P. E. Whitelaw (195) for Auckland against Otago, at Dunedin.
CASSY, LIEUT. MICHAEL J. W., Grenadier Guards, was killed in action in Italy in October. After showing good form at St. Dunstan's he played for Oxford against Cambridge at Lord's in 1941; going in first, he made the highest score in each innings for his side--52 and 28. He played for Northamptonshire in war-time games. He excelled in Rugby football as a scrum-half.
CAVAGHAN, HAROLD, a private in the Border Regiment, killed in action in Normandy in August, aged 19, was the great batting success of the Sedbergh XI in 1943 with an average of 75.60 for an aggregate of 378 runs, and the highest innings 126. That season Sedbergh won all their six matches.
CHALK, FLIGHT LIEUT. FREDERICK GERALD HUDSON, D.F.C., missing from February 1943, was in January officially "presumed killed." His tragic and uncertain death at the age of 32 was deplored by all who knew him and everyone interested in cricket. For Uppingham, Oxford and Kent he batted and fielded so brilliantly that he became an attractive figure whenever he played.
In 1928 he headed his school averages with 44; gained his Oxford Blue as a Brasenose Freshman in 1931 and, when captain of his University in 1934, played a brilliant innings of 108 at Lord's against Cambridge. Oxford won by eight wickets when Chalk first played against Cambridge and the next three engagements were drawn, so that he was never on the losing side in the University match. He averaged 38.84 for Kent after the Oxford term in 1934. Scholastic duties limited his appearances but his county form improved, and in 1937 he gave a splendid display in a fighting innings of 107 against Middlesex at Lord's where, on a worn pitch, he used the cut, pull and drive in delightful style; three of his strokes cleared the boundary and he hit ten 4's. Each season when county captain he scored over a thousand runs with averages of 25.34 and 30.66.
He played his highest innings, 198, at Tonbridge against Sussex in 1939 when he averaged 30.66, but perhaps his finest effort was against Yorkshire at Dover a week before the outbreak of war: making 115 not out, he carried his bat through an innings of 215 after Kent followed-on. This did not avert defeat, but five days later his 94 helped materially in victory over Lancashire by five wickets--a grand finish to a cricket career of high merit. In that last season of first-class cricket which we have known, Kent, thanks to his leadership in going for victory, drew only three of 27 games.
Of his capacity in captaincy Mr. G. de L. Hough, the Kent secretary, wrote: "Gerry Chalk will be greatly missed by his many cricket friends-especially in Kent. Apart from his ability as a batsman and fielder, he was an excellent captain in the field. The way in which he nursed the bowling in 1939 was outstanding. He nearly always managed to keep one bowler fresh for use at a pinch, and I think it is fair to say that our rise in the Championship from twelfth in 1938 to fifth was largely due to this, and his example in, and placing of, the field."
Skilful defence, besides ability to score at every opportunity, made his batting especially valuable, while his speed and accuracy as an off-side fieldsman maintained the high reputation characteristic of the best Kent amateurs for generations.
Joining the Honourable Artillery Company as a gunner when war broke out, Chalk transferred to the R.A.F. as a rear gunner and won the D.F.C. in June 1941 when returning from a raid on Hanover. As described officially,"Chalk by his cool and accurate fire undoubtedly saved his aircraft and probably destroyed the attacker--an Me. 110." Following a pilot's course he was promoted Flight Lieutenant and became a Spitfire flight commander.
Chalk married a daughter of G. N. Foster, of the Worcestershire family, who also played for Kent, as did his son, P. G. Foster, under his brother-in-law's captaincy.
COBBOLD, LIEUT.-COLONEL JOHN (IVAN) CURRAY, of the Scots Guards, was killed by enemy action in the Guards Chapel disaster in June, aged 47. He played for Eton in the 1915 season, when the Harrow match did not take place, and he failed to show his proper bowling form against Winchester.
COOK, SQUADRON LEADER A. E., D.F.C., who died on active service in August, was a valuable member of the Bedford School XI for three seasons, sharing the honours with C. L. Oakley, who in 1937 showed exceptional brilliance with an average of 101.80 for an aggregate of 1,018 runs and highest innings 203 not out. Cook averaged 26.33 in 1936: when captain next year his figures fell to 23.60 and he took 26 wickets. Free from the cares of leadership in 1938, he improved with a batting average of 43.10, while 36 wickets fell to him. He played for Bedfordshire in 1939 and was at Oxford University when war broke out. A versatile athlete, he broke the school putting-the-weight record and was good at Rugby football when Bedford were very strong.
CREATON, LIEUT. D. A., who was killed in September when serving in the 11th Hussars, played in the 1939 Haileybury eleven.
CROFTS, MAJOR D. D., of the Hampshire Regiment, who was killed in Italy in September 1943, played an innings of 129 against Free Foresters for Charterhouse School in 1937.
CROMPTON, SQUADRON LEADER J. A., was killed on active service in 1943. For three years he showed good form in the Charterhouse XI, finishing in 1938 with an average of 35 for an aggregate of 534, his best score being 107 not out, and he helped to beat Eton with a well-hit 72. In 1937 his 41 was the highest innings against Harrow, who were defeated by 17 runs.
DAY, CAPTAIN D. A. S., killed in action in Burma in February, gained prominence as a batsman for Tonbridge in 1933 and the next season doing especially well against Clifton at Lord's. He scored 27 and 60 in the first of these matches, and in 1934, when he headed the school batting averages with 62.18, played two fine innings--71 and 130 not out. He also took four wickets for 52 runs and, as an all-rounder, gave promise of following the example of his father, A. P. Day, who excelled for Malvern and Kent. This difference marked their bowling: the father was right-arm medium-paced with admirable delivery, the son lured opponents to destruction with left-hand lobs--a very rare type of attack.
DODS, MR. H. W., who played for Lincolnshire from 1929 until war broke out, fell while on active service with the Scots Guards in June. A very good batsman, he showed to special advantage in 1935, averaging 42 for an aggregate of 673 runs, highest score 145 not out. In 1939 he headed the county averages with 29.37, although his best score was 54--sure evidence of consistent soundness.
DUNLOP, LIEUT. B. E., of the Grenadier Guards, who was killed in North Africa in April 1943, played in the 1939 Charterhouse XI, and also appeared for Berkshire.
ELLIOT, CAPTAIN D. P. G., who played in the Rugby School cricket eleven for three seasons, finishing as captain in 1937, was killed in action in February. He made a name when first at Lord's by scoring, with P. C. Reynell as partner, 168 in ninety minutes against Marlborough. He showed to still more advantage in an innings of 190 against Old Rugbeians in his last season at the school, and headed the averages with 60.36. P/O A. Kershaw, who that year scored not out 124 in the drawn match with Marlborough, was killed in 1941.
FAREBROTHER, LIEUT. MICHAEL HARCOURT, Grenadier Guards, chief bowler in the 1938 Eton XI, was killed in Italy in June 1944.
FENWICK, MAJOR IAN, 60th Rifles (serving with S.A.S. Regiment), killed in action in August, was in the Winchester XI 1929, and went to Pembroke College, Cambridge, but did not get his Blue.
FENWICK, CAPTAIN ROBERT CECIL, R.A.C., who was killed while on active service in India in August, aged 25, scored 87 against Eton at Lord's in 1938--his only season in the Harrow School XI. Next year he started the Oxford Freshmen's match with his side's top score, 42, but was not tried in the eleven, and he joined The Army directly when war broke out. Fenwick was equally good at squash and lawn tennis, while at golf he looked like gaining distinction.
FORD, MAJOR C. G., was killed in Italy in January fighting with the Grenadier Guards. Standing six feet seven inches in height and strongly built, he bowled fast with devastating effect. For Harrow in the 1928 and 1929 seasons against Eton at Lord's he took seven wickets for 86 and six for 88, doing specially well on the second occasion, when his five for 50 in a total of 347 earned high praise. Deadly with the new ball at the start of each innings, he could not maintain his pace when Eton pulled the game round in 1928 and Harrow lost a great struggle by 28 runs. Next year the match was drawn in favour of Eton. C. G. Ford failed in the Oxford Freshmen's match in the following season. In 1939 he toured Denmark with an M.C.C. side and, at Aalborg against Denmark, played a hard-hit innings of 105.
GRACE, CAPTAIN EDWARD MILLS, R.A.M.C., a grandson of the great hitter and lob bowler, Dr. E. M. Grace, "The Coroner," of Gloucestershire and England after whom he was christened, died of typhoid fever on March 14, the illness being caught when on active service in Italy. A useful cricketer, left-handed with both bat and ball, he played for Wrekin College and Bristol University, for whom he did well in a good innings of 96 against Birmingham University. In 1935, when a substitute for Worcestershire Gentlemen against Gloucestershire Gipsies, a club of which his father, Dr. Edgar Mervyn Grace, was captain, he made 82 not out at Cirencester, and in recognition was elected a member of the club! In build he resembled his illustrious grand-uncle W. G. Grace, and fielded finely close to the wicket--a characteristic of his grandfather as described in The Cricketer. He was aged 28.
GRIMSHAW, B/S/M JAMES WILLIAM TRAVIS, H.A.C., was killed in action in September, aged 32. He went from King William School, Isle of Man, to Cambridge and was in the 1934 and 1935 elevens. A slow left-hand bowler, he played for Kent in a few matches.
HOGARTH, MAJOR JOHN USHER, Grenadier Guards, who was killed in action in July, in his 46th year, played in the 1916 Harrow XI.
KEATINGE, LIEUT. CHARLES FITZGERALD, Irish Guards, killed in action in August, aged 20, was in the Winchester XI 1940-1942.
KEMP-WELCH, CAPTAIN GEORGE DURANT, died in June as the outcome of enemy action which destroyed the Guards Chapel. He gave up important business connections when war broke out and joined the Grenadier Guards. As a soldier he carried the same compelling force that made him prominent as a games player at Charterhouse and Cambridge, while, with more time available, he might have become invaluable in the Warwickshire cricket eleven.
He progressed steadily in batting, after showing more prominence as a fast-medium-paced bowler at school, and, though in 1929 doing little at Fenner's, he found his form at Cheltenham against Gloucestershire as an opening batsman and gained his Blue when a Freshman. The big occasion provided the opportunity for Kemp-Welch to produce his best skill and admirable style: in his three matches against Oxford he played six innings, scoring 270 runs with an average of 45--an exceptional level of consistent batting under the trying conditions that always prevail at Lord's.
In 1930 Kemp-Welch helped E. T. Killick in an opening stand for 139, and he took two wickets for 10 runs in a collapse, Cambridge winning by 205 runs. When captain next year he batted admirably for 87 and 28 against Oxford, beginning the match in a partnership of 149 with A. Ratcliffe, who went on to create a record of 201 which the Nawab of Pataudi immediately excelled by making 238 not out. This great innings, which mainly accounted for Oxford winning by eight wickets, still heads the list of three-figure scores made in inter-University matches. Continuing the habit begun in 1927 of playing for Warwickshire in the summer vacation, Kemp-Welch finished the summer with a remarkable experience of travelling and good batting: in the course of two weeks he played for Warwickshire at Taunton, for the Gentlemen both at Folkestone and Scarborough, and then back to Folkestone for the Rest of England match against the M.C.C. South African team. Opening the batting, he scored in these games 56, 12, 51, 28 and 40. In that year he also played for the Gentlemen at Lord's, and altogether that season scored 1,561 runs, average 37.16.
In February 1932 Kemp-Welch went to Jamaica with a team captained by Lord Tennyson, and again was associated with a record by an opponent, G. Headley scoring 344 not out, the highest individual innings played by a West Indies batsman. Kemp-Welch made 105 in the same match and 186 in the return encounter with All Jamaica. Brilliant fielding helped to make him a valuable member of any side.
After playing well for three years in the Charterhouse team, Kemp-Welch gained his Association football Blue at Cambridge as centre-forward and became captain of the eleven. In 1934 he married Mrs. Richard Munro, daughter of Mr. Stanley Baldwin, subsequently Lord Baldwin of Bewdley.
KIDDLE, P/O HORACE PETER HARVARD, aged 20, Dulwich College fast bowler, died on active service in April. Kiddle was one of a celebrated bowling trio with T. E. Bailey and A. W. H. Mallett, who took their side to victory on numerous occasions. Kiddle used his height to full advantage and kept a splendid length besides varying his pace skilfully. Against King's College School, Wimbledon, in 1941, when he took 50 wickets, average 7.86, he dismissed eight batsmen for three runs, including the "hat-trick"--a feat regarded as a record in Public School cricket.
LEE, JACK W., serving as a private in the Pioneers, was killed in action during the early part of the Normandy campaign in July. A brother of F. S.. the Somerset opening batsman, and H. W. Lee, the former Middlesex professional, Jack Lee was a reliable batsman and useful spin bowler during a first-class career from 1923 to 1936, when he accepted the post of head groundsman and coach at Mill Hill School. In 1934 he scored 1,433 runs in Championship matches, with an average of 32.56. He and Frank Lee, the two most reliable of the regular Somerset players, engaged in a three-figure partnership for the first wicket in three successive innings in August, 213 against Surrey at Weston-super-Mare, 119 and 146 against Sussex at Eastbourne. These stands took place in the course of four playing days, Jack Lee making 86, 60 and 100 not out. Both matches were drawn. He hit his highest score--193 not out--against Worcestershire at Weston-super-Mare in 1933. Altogether in first-class cricket he scored 7,856 runs, average 21.23, and took 494 wickets at 29.80 apiece. London club cricketers knew him well through his war-time games for London Counties. Like his two brothers, he played for Middlesex before he appeared in the Somerset XI. Born on February 1, 1904, he died in his 41st year.
LYTTELTON, LIEUT. JOHN ANTHONY, of the Grenadier Guards, killed in action during February, aged 22, was a member of the family so well known in cricket for over a hundred years. The fourth Lord Lyttelton played for Cambridge in 1838. The father of J. A., the Hon. and Rev. C. F. Lyttelton, played for Eton, Cambridge University and Worcestershire. J. A. Lyttelton was in the Eton XI of 1939, when for the first time since 1908 Harrow were victorious in the great schools match at Lord's. He scored 28 runs and took two wickets. Next season in the one-day war-time match at Harrow, he brought off three catches but did nothing with either ball or bat to help in an exciting victory for Eton by one wicket. Eton did not suffer defeat that season.
McRAE, TEMP. SURGEON LIEUT. F. M., R.N.V.R., was killed when H.M. Mahratta, a destroyer, was lost in February. Playing first for Somerset in 1936, he steadily improved in batting, although not finding time for regular participation in first-class cricket, and in 1939 he averaged 30.40, his best innings being 107 against Hampshire at Taunton--his only century for the county. He fielded very smartly. At St. Mary's Hospital he made a name as a dashing three-quarter and appeared in a Rugby international trial. His death at the age of 28 was a great loss to Somerset, as expressed by Brigadier Lancaster, Hon. Secretary to the county.
MATHER, LIEUT. A. N., was killed in August while serving in the Rifle Brigade. A good opening batsman for Canford, he scored 470 runs, average 39.16, in 1941, his second season in the eleven, excelling with 136 against Downside. He played in the University match of 1942 and was the first of the last four Oxford batsmen who fell in ten minutes, Cambridge gaining a victory by 77 runs when W. J. H. Butterfield was bowled by A. F. S. Austin with the seventh ball of the last possible over, just at seven o'clock.
MERRY, DEPUTY FLIGHT COMMANDER D., a younger brother of the West Indies Test player, was killed in Canada on May 4 when doing a night flying trial. A very useful batsman, he made 135 in three completed innings for Trinidad in 1941 and went to England directly afterwards. He was only 21.
PACKE, MAJOR CHARLES WILLIAM CHRISTOPHER, killed in Normandy in July, aged 35, played intermittently for Leicestershire from 1932. When he first appeared for the county the Committee could not find a regular captain, and Packe was one of six amateurs who undertook the duty during the season. A fair batsman, he never found his best form in county cricket, but for The Army in 1938 he scored 176 at Cambridge against the University, and another fine innings was his 145 for The Army against R.A.F. at Aldershot in 1938. He was a fine, free-hitting batsman.
PEARSE, CAPTAIN BERNARD, who was killed in France, played in the King's College, Taunton, School XI and for three seasons captained Taunton Wayfarers.
PERSHKE, FLIGHT LIEUT. W. J., who got his Blue for Oxford when a Freshman in 1938, was killed in January, aged 26. After heading the Uppingham averages with 36.38 and taking 31 wickets, he scarcely realised expectations at the University, but against Glamorgan his fast bowling accounted for eight batsmen, so helping largely in a victory by ten wickets, and earning him a place in the side at Lord s. The match with Cambridge was drawn owing to high scoring, Pershke, who took three wickets for 54, doing some of the best bowling. In a match at Lewes in 1940 for a Sussex XI against an R.A.F. XI he took six wickets for 25, being mainly responsible for victory by 15 runs over a side including W. R. Hammond and L. E. G. Ames.
PHILLIPS, MAJOR PETER ASHLEY, of the Shropshire Light Infantry, who was killed in Italy in March, showed to advantage in all games at Canford School and captained the cricket eleven. His father, Major F. A. Phillips, D.S.O., is still well known as the Oxford University and Somerset batsman of fifty years ago.
POLLOCK, SQUADRON LEADER WILLIAM, died on October 28, aged 62. For many years cricket correspondent of the Daily Express, he accompanied two English teams to Australia, and went on the last tour to South Africa. He wrote several books, the best known being Talking About Cricket. He served in the 1914-18 war and rejoined the R.A.F. in 1939.
SHELDON, CAPTAIN A. B., died of pneumonia while on leave from the 14th Punjaub Regiment, after fighting in Burma for eight months. When captain of Haileybury in 1940, his third year in the XI, he averaged 55.35 for 775 runs, with 134 not out at Harrow, a specially fine effort that saved his side from defeat. He also made 87 at Lord's against Marlborough and played for Public Schools against a Lord's XI. He was contemporary at Haileybury with Major W. J. H. Shephard and Lieut. D. A. Creaton, both killed in the war.
SHEPHARD, MAJOR WILLIAM JOHN HOPPER, captain of Haileybury XI in 1939, was killed in action in an Indian theatre of war while serving with the 12th Frontier Force Regiment early in the year. An admirable batsman at Haileybury, he was three times in the eleven, and when he led the side the only match lost was that with Eton on Agar's Plough. That season he headed the averages with 47.73 for an aggregate of 716; highest innings 156. Rain prevented any cricket in the match with Cheltenham, but he played for Lord's Schools against The Rest, scoring 18 and 10. After entering Christ's College, Cambridge, as a medical student, he joined the Gloucestershire Regiment in 1940. A son of Dr. W. Hopper Shephard of Tewkesbury, Major Shephard was 22 years old.
SINCLAIR, LIEUT. ALBERT MICHAEL, K.R.R.C., died on September 25, aged 26, when a prisoner in Germany. He played in the 1935 Winchester XI.
SPEARING, MR. SILVESTER MAURICE HAYWARD, was killed in London during an air-raid on February 20 at the age of 41. As a member of the Bank of England XI he was well known amongst London club cricketers and in pre-war days appeared frequently in sides representing Club Cricket Conference. Some years ago, when at the Liverpool Branch of the Bank, he appeared in the Cheshire county eleven. During the last two years as a member of the British Empire XI he maintained his form in batting and excelled behind the stumps, revealing exceptional skill when dealing with fast bowling on the leg side.
VANE, FLIGHT SERGEANT J. A., who was killed in air operations over Sicily in March, aged 21, played in 1939 for King's School, Canterbury, and for St. Lawrence Beverley.
WITHERINGTON, MR. DENYS MARCH, was killed in Italy on February 16 while serving as a private in The Loyal Regiment. The eldest of three sons of Mr. A. S. Witherington of Sunderland, all of whom captained The Leys School at cricket, Denys was in the eleven from 1935 to 1938 and showed such capital form as a batsman and wicket-keeper that he played in the Public Schools match at Lord's; in 1939 he narrowly missed his Blue at Cambridge. He scored 20 and 38, besides stumping three and catching two men, so dismissing the second half of the opposition and helping his side to victory by 161 runs in the Freshmen's match. For seven innings in the University side he averaged 29.40, invariably batting soundly, and his skill behind the stumps created a very good impression. He played in the Seniors' match next year, but then University cricket became disorganised. In the Durham Senior League he often did well, and in his last match for Sunderland against Whitburn he scored 159 not out. Bomber pilot A. John Witherington was killed on September 16, 1941, as mentioned on page 369 of Wisden 1943.
WILDBORNE, MR. BRIAN OSBOURNE, of Copthorne, one of the best players in the war-time team of Surrey Colts, died of internal trouble on September 6 while serving with the Royal Air Force. After entering on a scholastic career he joined the service in November 1943, having proved himself the best bowler for his side with 49 wickets at 13.55 apiece.; he played for Sir Pelham Warner's XI against the Australian Air Force at Lord's without having a chance to show his form. His effective bowling in 1942, when only 16 years of age, gave great promise, 55 wickets falling to him at the low cost of 9.12 runs apiece. Nearly six feet tall, Wildbourne bowled right-handed medium-pace with accurate length and mixed spin.