May 19, 2013

Anti-corruption efforts need to be proactive

Rather than relying on police investigations or media stings to uncover rot in the game, cricket has to get tough with its own
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There was a time when cricket looked upon T20 as a saviour. However, following revelations of another major corruption scandal in the lavish-spending IPL, officials must now be wondering about the wisdom of opening up more fixing avenues to crooks.

Early indications suggest the current investigation will be far reaching, with more players dragged into the net. It'll be interesting to see if some of the cricketers crack and start helping with the investigations by implicating others. This is an area where previous corruption scandals haven't revealed much, but sooner or later players need to become a source of useful information.

For this to happen, they will require some guarantees in order to be rid of their fear of the consequences of being whistle-blowers. This is an awfully large obstacle to overcome.

In a perverse way, cricket's best weapon in the fight against corruption might be the revelation that a really big-name player was involved in a scam. That way the outcry would be so widespread as to galvanise all parties into action against the crooks.

When I first heard the news of the latest scandal, I wasn't shocked. There's so much information available, it's hard not to believe that where there's smoke there's fire. However, I was staggered it occurred on Rahul Dravid's watch. Such is the widespread respect for the Rajasthan Royals captain, not just for his achievements but also for his integrity, it's hard to imagine a player giving anything less than 100% for such a man. The fact that players under Dravid's captaincy allegedly indulged in spot-fixing highlights the magnitude of the problem cricket is facing.

In a game that has suffered previously because of captains being directly involved in corruption, this is one time when you can be sure - as certain as is possible in such a dirty business - the skipper was blameless.

Worryingly, once again cricket, and in particular the Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU), also appear to have not been put out. Apparently they took no part in the current investigations, and despite a number of arrests and convictions over the years, the game has had very little success in bringing to book any of the villains.

I'm not surprised at this lack of success following an exchange with a member of the ACSU in 2010, which culminated in me responding, "Don't you understand how the corruption works? It's not the players who decide when and where the fraud occurs."

It's frightening to think the ACSU may not fully grasp that once the crooks get their hooks into a player, he has only one way out - the same way you exit the mafia.

The game needs a cricket solution to corruption along with a legal one. If cricket relies solely on proving the guilt of these miscreants in a law court, the problem will never be eradicated and eventually the game will lose all credibility.

The ACSU, with the backing of the officials, has to be more proactive. They need to rattle a few cages and occasionally ignore the Marquess of Queensbury rule book. When they are convinced their suspicions about a person are valid, they should demand cricket plays its part and wields the axe at the selection table. If offenders are permanently omitted it's difficult for lawyers to wage war on the basis of non-selection.

This may sound draconian and drastic but that's the only way cricket is going to win this dirty war. The heavy lifting can't always be left to police investigations, or television and newspapers to produce undercover stings. If cricket doesn't earnestly engage in this battle, it will find itself in an even bigger fix.

Any future fixes may not be right royal ones like this latest scam, but too many more and they won't need to be of that magnitude to tarnish cricket's reputation drastically.

Former Australia captain Ian Chappell is now a cricket commentator for Channel 9, and a columnist

Comments have now been closed for this article

  • POSTED BY TheOnlyEmperor on | May 22, 2013, 11:20 GMT

    The cricket administration has never ever taken fixing seriously. A slap on the hand, a period of exile for a while and a backdoor entry at an appropriate time when things quieten down - this has been the approach so far. Of course, the truth and reconciliation commissions too play a part in reconciling the public. The various support groups of the criminal players also gang up, paint sob stories in the media and then brazenly contend that any action should be with the view to reform the criminal rather than longterm punitive action! After all this... Even a player who is discarded, finds favor with the TV channels, or worse, with the politicians! To break the law is as fascinating it appears as teenage rebellion to the teenager.

    Bottom line: Things can be clean only if the right value systems are fostered in cricket, starting with the cricket administration!

  • POSTED BY on | May 22, 2013, 10:33 GMT

    All around I see that the verdict of guilt has been delivered...by everyone other than the judiciary ! What right do we have to pronounce someone guilty on hearsay? If eventually it is proven that this was a case of the accused being wrongly pinned with a case, can we collectively do away with the damage inflicted?

  • POSTED BY on | May 22, 2013, 8:08 GMT

    Great article Ian Chappell. Unfortunately I have had the personal experience dealing with people that have fixed games and conspired to engineer results. One would know that to speak out about particular individuals can be fraught with danger. There has to be shown some dash and reliable investigation in weeding out these destroyers of the game. Amit Singh you are a disgrace. ( arrested Bookie, also opening bowler in Goa Pro League.

  • POSTED BY cnksnk on | May 21, 2013, 2:15 GMT

    @McGrorium. While i broadly concur with your views, I am not too sure if everything that should have been done was done in the case of the 4 players who were identified as fixers. While the BCCI appointed an investigator, I do not recall any complaint being filed with the police. So one is not even sure if the evidence was looked into from a potential prosecution point of view. Also while Azhar was exonerated later in the court, he was elected as an MP prior to this decision. So much for our public's awareness. Here was a Captain of the Indian team who was accused of fixing and also banned for the same and we elect him as our law maker. The fact that he was cleared later is no justification. The point that I am making is that BCCI did not even bother to launch a prosecution. The message potential fixers was clear - chances of getting caught is small and even if caught you may be banned but the money stays and there is no conviction. Most fixers will feel this is a win win situation.

  • POSTED BY Sheela on | May 21, 2013, 1:23 GMT

    The main reason for ignoring spot fixing or other accusations comes mainly from the accusers who use terms targetting particular communities, regions etc. Some people had written against even the dress worn by a section of the Indians and unfortunately even leading newspapers publish such pieces. Not one reader could convincingly put forward a doubt citing real situations. Dropping of catch, losing a wicket suddenly etc. are natural to cricket and these may be exploited by fixers.

  • POSTED BY Sheela on | May 21, 2013, 1:15 GMT

    Obviously no one including players will come forward to disclose the various fixing charges. One of the ways, not necessarily the best one, is for the authorities to give complete protection to whistle blowers. Mere verbal accusations without tangible information which cannot be verified, should be ignored. As it appears there may be danger not only to the whistle blower but to those who may proceed with the investigation, total security for all must be ensured. This ia a wishful thinking in India and other readers are requested to suggest enforceable methods.

  • POSTED BY chotteguru on | May 20, 2013, 14:03 GMT

    I concur with Mr Ian Chappel. The ASCU's record of catching anyone is rather poor. It appears to the casual observer ,that BCCI re-acts to situations and somehow has not cuaght wind of how much the reputation of it sport is jeopardised when someone is caught. The ASCU must given the task of cleaning up the sport and tell the general public of the measures it is enacting in order to do so.International Athlectics has done quite a lot satisfy concerns on steroids an other enhancers. What is BCCI doing and why is the ICC not on its back?

  • POSTED BY on | May 20, 2013, 11:28 GMT

    That's what they said about Hansie, Ian........

  • POSTED BY Amit_13 on | May 20, 2013, 11:06 GMT

    Is this not as simple to understand as - Look at the problem and not the solution? Its much harder to implement a solution but you want to make sure you find the right solution. The players involved are playing one of the richest tournaments on the planet and it is difficult to accept that they are wanting for money. The motivation being 'just' money is difficult to digest. The bookies do it for the thrill of money and the quick fix addictions provide. Perhaps some, if not all, players involved in spot fixing also need a dopamine fix? The money adds to the fix? As with every addiction, once you have it, its hard to beat it.

    The money aspect will remain a massive pull for players not in the national frame. But a former test player to be involved??? Begs the question are we all looking at it through the same glasses?

  • POSTED BY Nutcutlet on | May 20, 2013, 10:54 GMT

    I wonder what is written down in the contract that the players sign before they play for their franchise sides. Is there a clause that lays out in considerable detail the penalties that will be incurred for any practice that involves the promotion of third parties' 'interests'? If it can be shown that a player has breached his contract, in addition to the laws that exist in India, then the case for the prosecution is immeasurably strengthened. Furthermore, the captains' & managers' duties should include a responsibility clause re: the guarantee of the integrity of the players involved in the franchise. If a player feels that he's being asked to hoodwink his captain, then he might think twice before having a private conversation with an anonymous 'fan'. And it is obvious that no player should be lodged in a place apart from the rest of his squad. That is asking for trouble as children & irresponsible adults will always do things that they shouldn't when not being supervised. So obvious!

  • POSTED BY TheOnlyEmperor on | May 22, 2013, 11:20 GMT

    The cricket administration has never ever taken fixing seriously. A slap on the hand, a period of exile for a while and a backdoor entry at an appropriate time when things quieten down - this has been the approach so far. Of course, the truth and reconciliation commissions too play a part in reconciling the public. The various support groups of the criminal players also gang up, paint sob stories in the media and then brazenly contend that any action should be with the view to reform the criminal rather than longterm punitive action! After all this... Even a player who is discarded, finds favor with the TV channels, or worse, with the politicians! To break the law is as fascinating it appears as teenage rebellion to the teenager.

    Bottom line: Things can be clean only if the right value systems are fostered in cricket, starting with the cricket administration!

  • POSTED BY on | May 22, 2013, 10:33 GMT

    All around I see that the verdict of guilt has been delivered...by everyone other than the judiciary ! What right do we have to pronounce someone guilty on hearsay? If eventually it is proven that this was a case of the accused being wrongly pinned with a case, can we collectively do away with the damage inflicted?

  • POSTED BY on | May 22, 2013, 8:08 GMT

    Great article Ian Chappell. Unfortunately I have had the personal experience dealing with people that have fixed games and conspired to engineer results. One would know that to speak out about particular individuals can be fraught with danger. There has to be shown some dash and reliable investigation in weeding out these destroyers of the game. Amit Singh you are a disgrace. ( arrested Bookie, also opening bowler in Goa Pro League.

  • POSTED BY cnksnk on | May 21, 2013, 2:15 GMT

    @McGrorium. While i broadly concur with your views, I am not too sure if everything that should have been done was done in the case of the 4 players who were identified as fixers. While the BCCI appointed an investigator, I do not recall any complaint being filed with the police. So one is not even sure if the evidence was looked into from a potential prosecution point of view. Also while Azhar was exonerated later in the court, he was elected as an MP prior to this decision. So much for our public's awareness. Here was a Captain of the Indian team who was accused of fixing and also banned for the same and we elect him as our law maker. The fact that he was cleared later is no justification. The point that I am making is that BCCI did not even bother to launch a prosecution. The message potential fixers was clear - chances of getting caught is small and even if caught you may be banned but the money stays and there is no conviction. Most fixers will feel this is a win win situation.

  • POSTED BY Sheela on | May 21, 2013, 1:23 GMT

    The main reason for ignoring spot fixing or other accusations comes mainly from the accusers who use terms targetting particular communities, regions etc. Some people had written against even the dress worn by a section of the Indians and unfortunately even leading newspapers publish such pieces. Not one reader could convincingly put forward a doubt citing real situations. Dropping of catch, losing a wicket suddenly etc. are natural to cricket and these may be exploited by fixers.

  • POSTED BY Sheela on | May 21, 2013, 1:15 GMT

    Obviously no one including players will come forward to disclose the various fixing charges. One of the ways, not necessarily the best one, is for the authorities to give complete protection to whistle blowers. Mere verbal accusations without tangible information which cannot be verified, should be ignored. As it appears there may be danger not only to the whistle blower but to those who may proceed with the investigation, total security for all must be ensured. This ia a wishful thinking in India and other readers are requested to suggest enforceable methods.

  • POSTED BY chotteguru on | May 20, 2013, 14:03 GMT

    I concur with Mr Ian Chappel. The ASCU's record of catching anyone is rather poor. It appears to the casual observer ,that BCCI re-acts to situations and somehow has not cuaght wind of how much the reputation of it sport is jeopardised when someone is caught. The ASCU must given the task of cleaning up the sport and tell the general public of the measures it is enacting in order to do so.International Athlectics has done quite a lot satisfy concerns on steroids an other enhancers. What is BCCI doing and why is the ICC not on its back?

  • POSTED BY on | May 20, 2013, 11:28 GMT

    That's what they said about Hansie, Ian........

  • POSTED BY Amit_13 on | May 20, 2013, 11:06 GMT

    Is this not as simple to understand as - Look at the problem and not the solution? Its much harder to implement a solution but you want to make sure you find the right solution. The players involved are playing one of the richest tournaments on the planet and it is difficult to accept that they are wanting for money. The motivation being 'just' money is difficult to digest. The bookies do it for the thrill of money and the quick fix addictions provide. Perhaps some, if not all, players involved in spot fixing also need a dopamine fix? The money adds to the fix? As with every addiction, once you have it, its hard to beat it.

    The money aspect will remain a massive pull for players not in the national frame. But a former test player to be involved??? Begs the question are we all looking at it through the same glasses?

  • POSTED BY Nutcutlet on | May 20, 2013, 10:54 GMT

    I wonder what is written down in the contract that the players sign before they play for their franchise sides. Is there a clause that lays out in considerable detail the penalties that will be incurred for any practice that involves the promotion of third parties' 'interests'? If it can be shown that a player has breached his contract, in addition to the laws that exist in India, then the case for the prosecution is immeasurably strengthened. Furthermore, the captains' & managers' duties should include a responsibility clause re: the guarantee of the integrity of the players involved in the franchise. If a player feels that he's being asked to hoodwink his captain, then he might think twice before having a private conversation with an anonymous 'fan'. And it is obvious that no player should be lodged in a place apart from the rest of his squad. That is asking for trouble as children & irresponsible adults will always do things that they shouldn't when not being supervised. So obvious!

  • POSTED BY YorkshirePudding on | May 20, 2013, 9:51 GMT

    The problem is nobody knows who is on the take until someone raids a bookies, or a newspaper (NoTW) does a sting operation.

    Even the team captain wont know.

    Its good to see the BCCI taking a more aggressive posture on this issue, and in line with the other cricketing nations like Australia, NZ and England.

    In the end all cricketing countries need to crack down and a few high profile life bans would certainly cause some to think twice. Its a shame that the ICC didn't have the backbone to do that with Asif, Amir and Butt.

  • POSTED BY on | May 20, 2013, 8:13 GMT

    Questions cropping in my mind: How did Sreesanth get to stay in a hotel alone and not with the team? What is the role of the team management in this? Is it restricted to only on-field activities or does it include the off-field ones too? If yes, why didn't the team management, sadly that includes the much-respected captain too, reign in on Sreesanth?

    The environment created around the team might have had some bearing into the players' gross misconduct. I'm not sure if the franchise owners and the team management were absolutely serious about these things considering the amount of controversies that the IPL has had to deal with since its existence.

  • POSTED BY on | May 20, 2013, 4:44 GMT

    'Captain is blameless' is not a truism for that depends on what 'his role' is. If his 'work' is only on the field, then I am not sure if he is going to get an insight into the character of a player of his own team, forget opposing team. That is an integral problem with IPL where we have people from different cultures speaking different languages in one team. With all other 'extra' commitments like advertisements, press interviews etc, captain is hardly going to 'mix with the team' to know what his team is all about. It will only follow 'captain is as good as the team' philosophy, which Ian Chappell himself had disagreed :o

  • POSTED BY McGorium on | May 20, 2013, 3:24 GMT

    @cnksnk: I suppose you are referring to the case of Azhar, Jadeja, and Prabhakar. None of these cases would have stood in court: the BCCI did all that it could, namely to hand out life/long bans, but the cases themselves were mostly based on the sole testimony of one bookie (MK Gupta), and Cronje's testimony that Azhar introduced him to said bookie. Indeed, in Azhar's case, his life ban was tested in the AP high court, and was found unsustainable on the basis of lack of any evidence. Even if Azhar and Jadeja were found guilty in a court of law, their jail time would have been less than 3 years. After serving time, they are free to take up any job they please, and earn a livelihood. It's illegal and immoral to stop them from doing that. The England case was different in that it had solid evidence to back up a prosecution. The Delhi Police claims to have evidence against the IPL trio, and these claims will be tested in court. It remains to be seen if the charges will stick.

  • POSTED BY McGorium on | May 20, 2013, 3:03 GMT

    To all those berating the BCCI, I'd like to know what the BCCI can possibly do, short of monitoring every move of every cricketer, domestic and international. The BCCI can't legally do this; only the police can, and even then, only if there is probable cause. And therein lies the problem: Cricket has no choice but to rely on the police and journalists to do this for them. An occasional sting operation (like the NOTW one) funded by an anti-corruption squad would be useful, or providing monetary rewards to those who expose corruption such that it leads to a conviction. The whistleblower thing Ian Chappell mentions might help, but how is one to know when the bowler means to bowl rubbish, vs. is just genuinely rattled, vs. is injured vs. just unable to bowl well? 0% crime is infeasible;like all crime, there's an amount that any society accepts. So too must it be for cricket: detect when possible, and prosecute to the fullest extent when detected, and incentivise both.

  • POSTED BY sri1ram on | May 20, 2013, 2:34 GMT

    BCCI knows the average Indian viewer very well. Fortunately or unfortunately we are not a people stuck up on black and white notions of honesty and integrity, unless it comes to extremes - "Did the match result change?", "was rape victim hurt?" Aren't we used to justifying things? - see articles appearing about the lonely, insecure Malayali (Irony is that I happen to agree!). IPL at the moment is one of the few avenues for us to enjoy and vent out - does anyone think that the AVERAGE Indian fan really cares that much? Aussies or English or Americans would turn off the telly and do something else. This explains the silence of the BCCI. They know that by just riding out this "crisis" and letting the final IPL qualifiers and semis and finals, there is much more to gain in terms of continuity of mind boggling revenues - after all there is this famed forgetfulness of the average Indian that does not allow him to introspect, to demand rectification and ask repeated questions of officialdom

  • POSTED BY on | May 19, 2013, 23:58 GMT

    Vijay; are you referring to Joe Hockey? Surely he isn't that bad?!

    My view is that the only real solution is through competition. Cricket boards need to establish well-paying competition at home (with other perks if possible, e.g. national team exposure) and manage them in a way that doesn't give the book-makers a sniff. It's all very well for national boards and press to complain that IPL / the BCCI don't take action, but they need to be given reason to do so, which is competition.

  • POSTED BY jackthelad on | May 19, 2013, 21:04 GMT

    There is, I fancy, no way that anything constructive will be done; a few players may be demonised, as if it were all down to them as individuals, but the basis of the situation - that money has become more important than cricket in many promoters' eyes - will never be addressed - because they are the ones who have allowed this culture of 'grab what you can and run' to flourish.

  • POSTED BY on | May 19, 2013, 18:40 GMT

    Ian chapell, do you mean to say that azhar and cronje were not big-name cricketers?

  • POSTED BY cnksnk on | May 19, 2013, 15:28 GMT

    Great ideas. However as on date cricket does not seem to be too interested in getting to the root of the problem. While last year's spot fixing in England resulted in conviction, the stories in other parts of the world is less than inspiring. In India 5 - 6 cricketers were found to have indulged in match fixing in the 90's. This was investigated by a very respected director of the CBI , one of india's premier investigative agencies. BCCI imposed bans of various periods of time. However if we look back now, some of them are now commentators, compares and even law makers. So much for selling a country's respect. Senior members of the government were even heared lobbying for their reinstatement. The problem is that while BCCI took action, there was no follow up from a legal sense and life continued. The adminstrators played the role of the proverbial ostrich in that they pretended that there was no problem till the next issue hit them. Certainly does not inspire confidence.

  • POSTED BY venkatesh018 on | May 19, 2013, 12:29 GMT

    Excellent idea Ian. How can these lawyers argue and win a case against Non-selection of a tainted player in a national team or a T20 franchise ?

  • POSTED BY on | May 19, 2013, 9:23 GMT

    We have, one of the worst administrators, in BCCI. Except for bullying other boards, they will not take any positive step to eradicate corruption & dopes. This episode will also pass through. Shortly we will see a HOCKEY like situation.

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  • POSTED BY on | May 19, 2013, 9:23 GMT

    We have, one of the worst administrators, in BCCI. Except for bullying other boards, they will not take any positive step to eradicate corruption & dopes. This episode will also pass through. Shortly we will see a HOCKEY like situation.

  • POSTED BY venkatesh018 on | May 19, 2013, 12:29 GMT

    Excellent idea Ian. How can these lawyers argue and win a case against Non-selection of a tainted player in a national team or a T20 franchise ?

  • POSTED BY cnksnk on | May 19, 2013, 15:28 GMT

    Great ideas. However as on date cricket does not seem to be too interested in getting to the root of the problem. While last year's spot fixing in England resulted in conviction, the stories in other parts of the world is less than inspiring. In India 5 - 6 cricketers were found to have indulged in match fixing in the 90's. This was investigated by a very respected director of the CBI , one of india's premier investigative agencies. BCCI imposed bans of various periods of time. However if we look back now, some of them are now commentators, compares and even law makers. So much for selling a country's respect. Senior members of the government were even heared lobbying for their reinstatement. The problem is that while BCCI took action, there was no follow up from a legal sense and life continued. The adminstrators played the role of the proverbial ostrich in that they pretended that there was no problem till the next issue hit them. Certainly does not inspire confidence.

  • POSTED BY on | May 19, 2013, 18:40 GMT

    Ian chapell, do you mean to say that azhar and cronje were not big-name cricketers?

  • POSTED BY jackthelad on | May 19, 2013, 21:04 GMT

    There is, I fancy, no way that anything constructive will be done; a few players may be demonised, as if it were all down to them as individuals, but the basis of the situation - that money has become more important than cricket in many promoters' eyes - will never be addressed - because they are the ones who have allowed this culture of 'grab what you can and run' to flourish.

  • POSTED BY on | May 19, 2013, 23:58 GMT

    Vijay; are you referring to Joe Hockey? Surely he isn't that bad?!

    My view is that the only real solution is through competition. Cricket boards need to establish well-paying competition at home (with other perks if possible, e.g. national team exposure) and manage them in a way that doesn't give the book-makers a sniff. It's all very well for national boards and press to complain that IPL / the BCCI don't take action, but they need to be given reason to do so, which is competition.

  • POSTED BY sri1ram on | May 20, 2013, 2:34 GMT

    BCCI knows the average Indian viewer very well. Fortunately or unfortunately we are not a people stuck up on black and white notions of honesty and integrity, unless it comes to extremes - "Did the match result change?", "was rape victim hurt?" Aren't we used to justifying things? - see articles appearing about the lonely, insecure Malayali (Irony is that I happen to agree!). IPL at the moment is one of the few avenues for us to enjoy and vent out - does anyone think that the AVERAGE Indian fan really cares that much? Aussies or English or Americans would turn off the telly and do something else. This explains the silence of the BCCI. They know that by just riding out this "crisis" and letting the final IPL qualifiers and semis and finals, there is much more to gain in terms of continuity of mind boggling revenues - after all there is this famed forgetfulness of the average Indian that does not allow him to introspect, to demand rectification and ask repeated questions of officialdom

  • POSTED BY McGorium on | May 20, 2013, 3:03 GMT

    To all those berating the BCCI, I'd like to know what the BCCI can possibly do, short of monitoring every move of every cricketer, domestic and international. The BCCI can't legally do this; only the police can, and even then, only if there is probable cause. And therein lies the problem: Cricket has no choice but to rely on the police and journalists to do this for them. An occasional sting operation (like the NOTW one) funded by an anti-corruption squad would be useful, or providing monetary rewards to those who expose corruption such that it leads to a conviction. The whistleblower thing Ian Chappell mentions might help, but how is one to know when the bowler means to bowl rubbish, vs. is just genuinely rattled, vs. is injured vs. just unable to bowl well? 0% crime is infeasible;like all crime, there's an amount that any society accepts. So too must it be for cricket: detect when possible, and prosecute to the fullest extent when detected, and incentivise both.

  • POSTED BY McGorium on | May 20, 2013, 3:24 GMT

    @cnksnk: I suppose you are referring to the case of Azhar, Jadeja, and Prabhakar. None of these cases would have stood in court: the BCCI did all that it could, namely to hand out life/long bans, but the cases themselves were mostly based on the sole testimony of one bookie (MK Gupta), and Cronje's testimony that Azhar introduced him to said bookie. Indeed, in Azhar's case, his life ban was tested in the AP high court, and was found unsustainable on the basis of lack of any evidence. Even if Azhar and Jadeja were found guilty in a court of law, their jail time would have been less than 3 years. After serving time, they are free to take up any job they please, and earn a livelihood. It's illegal and immoral to stop them from doing that. The England case was different in that it had solid evidence to back up a prosecution. The Delhi Police claims to have evidence against the IPL trio, and these claims will be tested in court. It remains to be seen if the charges will stick.

  • POSTED BY on | May 20, 2013, 4:44 GMT

    'Captain is blameless' is not a truism for that depends on what 'his role' is. If his 'work' is only on the field, then I am not sure if he is going to get an insight into the character of a player of his own team, forget opposing team. That is an integral problem with IPL where we have people from different cultures speaking different languages in one team. With all other 'extra' commitments like advertisements, press interviews etc, captain is hardly going to 'mix with the team' to know what his team is all about. It will only follow 'captain is as good as the team' philosophy, which Ian Chappell himself had disagreed :o