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ESPNcricinfo's stats editor S Rajesh looks at the stories behind the stats

Payback time for bowlers

Test matches had been largely dominated by batsmen for two years, but in 2011 the bowlers came back strongly

S Rajesh

December 16, 2011

Comments: 29 | Text size: A | A

Saeed Ajmal had another successful day, taking three wickets, Bangladesh v Pakistan, 1st Test, Chittagong, 1st day, December 9, 2011
Saeed Ajmal has been the highest Test wicket-taker so far in 2011, and his 46 wickets have come at a superb average too © AFP
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The last few months have been especially good ones for bowlers. Pitches have been prepared to favour them, especially in South Africa and Australia, and they have exploited those conditions, leaving the batsmen wondering if this is indeed the golden age for batting. There have been other series this year when the bat has dominated the show, but 2011 will be remembered for, among other things, the fact that bowlers restored some parity after a couple of years when ball had clearly played second fiddle to bat.

In South Africa's two-Test home series against Australia, for example, each wicket cost less than 27 runs. In Australia's two-Test series against New Zealand, bowlers dominated even more, conceding 23.04 runs per wicket. As the series-wise numbers show, only once in 2011 has the average for a completed series exceeded 40 - when Sri Lanka toured England for the three-Test series, 42.30 runs were scored per wicket. In most of the other series, the averages have hovered around 32 to 35, which suggests a reasonably even contest.

Overall, the manner in which the bowlers have hit back in 2011 has been a refreshing departure from the two preceding years, especially. The year-wise bowling averages in the table below shows a significant improvement over 2010 (bowling average 36.60) and 2009 (37.70). In that two-year period, there were nine series of two or more Tests in which the average exceeded 40, with three of those going beyond 50. (This excludes Sri Lanka's tour of Pakistan in 2009, which was aborted midway due to the attack on the Sri Lankan team bus.) The two series between Sri Lanka and India - one in each country - both produced very high scores (though there were four results in six Tests), as did the two draws between South Africa and Pakistan in the UAE. On the other hand, there were five series with sub-30 averages.

The last time the overall average for a year was lower than 2011's number so far was way back in 2002, and even there the difference is marginal. (In fact, with four more Tests coming up in the year, mostly in bowler-friendly conditions, it's entirely possible that the average will slip below the 2002 mark by the time the year is done.)

Breaking up the stats into pace and spin, it's also clear that both categories have had pretty good years. Fast bowlers have averaged 31.87 so far this year, which is the first time in 11 years that they've broken the 32-barrier. Spinners have averaged 34.54, but even that's a huge improvement on their 2010 average of 40.52 and their 2009 mark of more than 38.

Year-wise averages for bowlers in Tests since Jan 2001
Year Tests Bowl ave Pace - wkts Average Spin - wkts Average
2011 36 32.87 698 31.87 397 34.54
2010 43 36.60 776 34.14 476 40.52
2009 41 37.70 771 37.22 438 38.47
2008 47 33.68 958 32.59 475 35.57
2007 31 34.83 629 33.23 281 37.54
2006 46 34.53 951 33.59 445 36.22
2005 49 33.40 1014 32.92 487 34.51
2004 51 35.31 977 35.65 577 34.59
2003 44 36.12 890 34.22 415 40.15
2002 54 32.58 1071 32.42 511 32.59
2001 55 34.09 1019 33.40 521 34.46

The region where the bowling averages have improved most significantly is the West Indies. For several years now, the pitches there have largely been sluggish, offering little for fast bowlers. This season, though, all that changed. The two series played there - featuring Pakistan and India - both witnessed averages of under 27. It's true that some of the top Indian batsmen were missing on that tour, but even so, it was clear that the pitches this season were different: Rahul Dravid and Duncan Fletcher, India's coach, both called the conditions among the toughest they've encountered. In 2009 and 2010, the average in 10 Tests in the West Indies was 37.26; this year it was 24.80, a drop of 33%. In fact, all the way from 2003 to 2010, the average in the West Indies was 37.03.

There has been a significant difference in Australia too, but the season there has only just begun. Final judgement on the conditions must wait till India play their four Tests, for it's highly unlikely that conditions in Adelaide and Sydney will resemble those that were on offer in Hobart.

The only country in which batsmen enjoyed a higher average in 2011 than in the previous two years was England. Despite the struggles of the Indian batsmen in four Tests there, the overall runs per wicket figure is in excess of 38, thanks largely to England's superb batting displays throughout the season.

Bowling averages in each country in 2011, and in the two previous years
Host 2011-Tests Wickets Average 2009&10 - Tests Wickets Average
West Indies 5 177 24.80 10 267 37.26
Australia 3 98 27.65 11 344 35.52
South Africa 3 99 30.38 9 289 33.62
New Zealand 2 63 31.47 9 281 38.10
Sri Lanka 3 91 32.35 11 297 39.30
Zimbabwe 3 103 34.23 - - -
India 3 98 36.36 10 281 43.43
Bangladesh 3 81 36.71 5 161 38.24
UAE 3 84 37.30 2 52 50.07
England 7 201 38.61 15 470 30.05

And a look at the top wicket-takers of 2011 reveals that quite a few have taken wickets at very good averages: with a 30-wicket cut-off, Stuart Broad's 22.30 is the best, followed closely by Pakistan's Saeed Ajmal, who is also the leading wicket-taker of the year so far. Ajmal's tally is much lower than the 2010 leader, Graeme Swann, who had 64, but that's because he has played half the number of Tests that Swann played. Most teams played fewer Tests this year because of the World Cup.

Apart from the names in the list below, there were several others who did well in their limited opportunities: Dale Steyn took 17 in three at 21.05, Ryan Harris took 15 in three at 17.33, while a whole host of debutants proved they belonged at the Test level right from the outset. (Click here for the full list of bowlers in 2011.)

Bowlers with best Test averages in 2011 (Qual: 30 wickets)
Bowler Tests Wickets Average Strike rate 5WI/ 10WM
Stuart Broad 7 33 22.30 49.1 1/ 0
Saeed Ajmal 7 46 23.34 57.3 3/ 1
James Anderson 7 35 24.85 50.8 1/ 0
Ravi Rampaul 8 31 25.03 54.8 0/ 0
Abdur Rehman 7 32 25.90 68.6 0/ 0
Darren Sammy 10 30 29.10 65.2 1/ 0
Fidel Edwards 8 32 29.90 47.3 3/ 0
Rangana Herath 8 32 31.96 74.3 2/ 0
Devendra Bishoo 10 39 36.23 69.9 1/ 0
Ishant Sharma 11 41 36.26 66.0 2/ 1

There's a small twist in the tale, though. With all these wickets and better bowling averages, you'd expect a reduction in the percentage of draws, but that hasn't been the case. In 2011, 12 out of 36 Tests have been drawn, which is exactly one in three - it's the second-highest percentage of draws in a year since 2001. The only year when the draw percentage was higher during this period was 2009 (15 out of 41). In 2010, for instance, only one in four Tests was drawn (11 out of 43). Click here for the list of drawn matches in 2011.

Stats excludes the ongoing Centurion Test between South Africa and Sri Lanka.

S Rajesh is stats editor of ESPNcricinfo. Follow him on Twitter

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Posted by AP_88 on (December 19, 2011, 14:03 GMT)

Congrats to Ajmal for an awesome year, hopefully he can continue delivering the goods against Eng - yes he did play against relatively weaker sides but you can only perform against the opposition at the other end..

I agree that Pakistan lacks a tearaway fast bowler but do they need one? In Wahab Riaz, Junaid Khan and Sadaf Hussain (yet to debut) they have three potentially world class left armers who can consistently bowl between 135 - 145 km/h, and add to these Umar Gul, Aizaz Cheema and the spin options...its right up there as one of the worlds leading attack!

Posted by Vikas_Vadgama on (December 19, 2011, 6:53 GMT)

Looking at the number of Tests column, I feel sad that 50+ Tests played in early 2000s have become now 30+ Tests per year. ICC, please don't allow Test Cricket to die, that's the real cricket.

Posted by Amey_K on (December 18, 2011, 23:26 GMT)

@Risky: Well, you need to dig in deeper into Saqlain's stats. Yes, he has 25 wickets Against India, but 24 of them are in 1999 Over a period of 3 matches. And anyone who follows cricket would know that the Indian team before 2001 and after 2001 are totally different. Yes, the 1999 team did have VVS, Dravid and Sachin, but its only after 2001 that they actually started hitting true form and the team got results. My case is proved by the last Test Saqlain played against India: he got 1 wicket for 204 runs. This was the Multan Test where Sehwag got a triple century, Sachin got 194* and it proved to be Saqlain's last Test.

If Saqlain had played as many Tests as Warne (145 Tests), assuming he took wickets at the same rate, he would end up at 616 wickets, or about 93 short of Warne. And if you compare with Murali (133 Tests) its a massive 235 wickets short of what Murali did (565 vs 800 wickets).

Saq was good, but not as good as Warne or Murali!

Posted by Amey_K on (December 18, 2011, 22:56 GMT)

The twist in the tale is not quite right. At least 3 of the 12 Tests which were drawn were rain hit. Take those 3 out and you again have 1 in 4 Tests drawn. And I said at least 3. There could be more.

Posted by g.narsimha on (December 17, 2011, 10:03 GMT)

HASAN ABBAS, CHECKED yuor performance in AUSTRALIA IN ur last tour IT WAS A BIG WHTE WASH TESTS=3-O(3) ODI 5-0 (5) ,SO FORGET THESE stats enjoy the clash of the TITANS in BANGLADESH

Posted by johnathonjosephs on (December 17, 2011, 2:32 GMT)

@Ejaz its amazing huh? You know whats more crazy? Muttiah Murali has been going 6 wickets per match his entire career. What a bowler

Posted by BillyCC on (December 16, 2011, 21:32 GMT)

@Gizza, I agree. I would also add to your comment by saying that lower batting standards today can also be related to other factors like the lack of technique in T20, the declining quality and importance of first-class cricket, the lack of application and concentration amongst test cricketers (what I like to call the Gen Y factor and which will get worse with the upcoming Gen I), the false confidence generated from the advanced technology of bats when defensive shots can go for boundaries and when slight mishits over the infield can go for four or six and the perceived but ill-founded theory that success is equivalent to scoring at a decent clip, where dismissals are generated by attacking shots (Brad Haddin may well pay the price for some of his dismissals in the last four tests).

Posted by risky on (December 16, 2011, 20:08 GMT)

@ Khiladisher..... Just check out the stats of ur Indian batting gods against Saqlain Mushtaq in tests & u will find how good they r against a quality spinner.

Span Mat Inns Overs Mdns Runs Wkts BBI BBM 1999-2004 4 7 230.5 51 707 25 5/93 10/187 Ave Econ S.R 5W/I 10W/M 28.28 3.06 55.4 4 2

Its a shame that he played only 8 years at international level & yet managed 208 wkts in just 49 tests. Imagine if he would have played for 20 years like Murali/Warne, what happened. Ajmal is a replica of Saqlain & I think Tendulker will never forget the semi final of WC2011, how he was upset against Ajmal. Same was happening in 1999 series, when Saqlain had bamboozeld him. Take a bow man.... Ajamal is an average spinner !!!

Posted by Shan156 on (December 16, 2011, 19:20 GMT)

@Ejaz Ahmad Siddiqui, whoa, don't get too excited mate. Breakdown for those 46 wickets: 18 wickets against Sri Lanka, 17 against the Windies, 6 against Zimbabwe and 5 against Bangladesh. Only Sri Lanka is a decent test side in this list. While Ajmal could only play the teams that Pakistan plays and his performance is commendable, I would rate Rampaul, Broad and Anderson's performances higher simply because they were achieved against superior batting sides. Especially Rampaul; he played 5 tests against the best batting side in the world - India - (2 of them in India) and has done incredibly well.

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 18:31 GMT)


are you forgetting ajmal's performance against australia...and new zealand...and england and west indies...and sri lanka...and south africa ?....Indians aren't the only team who can bat

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 18:27 GMT)

@Apoorv Pandey: I think it's ICC's prerogative to challenge Ajmal's action, and I'm told they have already once cleared it in 2009. Leave them their job. And don't you worry about Pakistan's lack of pacers. We have quite a few on the domestic circuit and the good thing about our pacers is that when they debut most of them already have accuracy and variation alongwith mere speed, Alhamdulillah!

Posted by khiladisher on (December 16, 2011, 15:03 GMT)


Posted by harshthakor on (December 16, 2011, 15:00 GMT)

Great for test Cricket.It is time bowlers get encouragement especially paceman and in the last decade the wickets were loaded in favour of the batsmen.There was hardly any grass or bounce for paceman .We need to continue helping bowlers and keep up the good progress of 2011.Only by producing bowler friendly tracks can the batsmen be truly tested.Only on such tracks were the Sobers, Viv Richards or Tendulkars tested.

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 14:52 GMT)

Ajmal's tally of 46wkts in 7 matches means 6.6wkts per match. That's incredible.

Now, we would see how good English bowlers are in UAE conditions.

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 13:32 GMT)

in my opinion englandbowler are greentrack bullies also ajmal is good but dodgy action he chucks even michel holding said that also steyn harris are world class in young guns cummins yadav aaron and pattison really heartning to see raw pace and rampaul edwards and roach these three are realy coming good watch out these in spinners ashwin is a real deal pure action strange pakistan dont have any fast bowlers now 130 135 mediocars cant win tests after aamir is gone pak have to find

Posted by Gizza on (December 16, 2011, 13:16 GMT)

@2929paul, but I don't think these statistics lie. This year the West Indies have been bowling really well. How else could they have such low averages? The reason why they're still ranked 7/8 is because of their very frequent batting collapses. Considering that Chanderpaul hasn't batted much recently, their batting has become even weaker with only Darren Bravo looking the goods at the moment. @BillyCC, well change in pitches and batting standards go hand-in-hand. Certain batsmen around the world but from some countries in particular don't have a good batting technique precisely because they haven't played much on challenging wickets. So I think it must be a combination. Pitches are definitely more pace-friendly but the lack of experience to bat on these pitches exacerbates the low scores.

Posted by HatsforBats on (December 16, 2011, 13:07 GMT)

It would be great to get back to 400 being the exception rather than the rule. If the 'summer' continues as it has Sydney might be as green as it was when Pakistan were here and wickets will fall; hopefully the catches get held this time. So Australia's bowling attack should be Harris, Cummins, Pattinson, & Lyon (& Watson)? Sounds good to me. Poor poor Ryan Harris, if only he wasn't made of glass (along with all the awesomeness he brings).

Posted by 2929paul on (December 16, 2011, 9:58 GMT)

Tables like these show just how misleading statistics can be. A glance at this bowler's table by someone who knew no better would indicate that WI must have the best bowling attack in the world, with three seamers in the top seven and a spinner right up there. In reality they are way below the top echelon of Test nations these days, more like the plucky underdogs that we all want to do well from time to time.

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 9:55 GMT)

Hoping to see a good contest between Pakistan and England now_both have superb bowlers and batsmen.Best of luck to Ajmal and Hafeez for staying at the top of bowlers rankings:-)

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 9:03 GMT)

Riverlime, yeah Ajmal and the rest of the bowlers are not bowling, because the batsmen are not interested. Talk to the hand\1

Posted by sifter132 on (December 16, 2011, 8:57 GMT)

Dunno about that jonesy - if England is the only place where the averages have gone up, and yet 2 Englishmen are near the top of the best average tables, doesn't that say that Broad and Anderson are the real deal??

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 7:47 GMT)

Sri lanka alone has drawn 6 matches in that time period!! they arent good enough to win ,bad enough to lose those games and weather played its part too!!

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 7:39 GMT)

No doubt Saeed Ajmal is a great player not only Bowler. he bat like geniously and bowl like Tiger. love to see him bowling.

Posted by riverlime on (December 16, 2011, 6:57 GMT)

Jonesy2... Please leave Ajmal out your praise, for he is not actually BOWLING.

Posted by   on (December 16, 2011, 6:12 GMT)

i can,t beleive that bowlers are doing well as a bowler with average of over 36 is making in the top ten list .is,t it ridiclious??????????????????????

Posted by Windies89 on (December 16, 2011, 5:59 GMT)

I think standards in test cricket have gone down due to the amount of T20 being played. You don't see a lot of batsmen displaying the patience required in test match cricket now; instead they are more concerned with fast scoring.

Posted by BillyCC on (December 16, 2011, 5:38 GMT)

Perhaps it's a case of poorer batting standards rather than improving pitches and better quality bowling.

Posted by jonesy2 on (December 16, 2011, 5:11 GMT)

just confirms that england's bowlers are mediocre at best and others like steyn harris and ajmal are the real deals.

Posted by Gizza on (December 16, 2011, 3:47 GMT)

2011 has had a high number of draws but the pitches are more bowler friendly. Only reasonable explanation is that there has been less play (more rain during Test matches + umpires going off due to "bad light" much more frequently than before).

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S Rajesh Stats editor Every week the Numbers Game takes a look at the story behind the stats, with an original slant on facts and figures. The column is edited by S Rajesh, ESPNcricinfo's stats editor in Bangalore. He did an MBA in marketing, and then worked for a year in advertising, before deciding to chuck it in favour of a job which would combine the pleasures of watching cricket and writing about it. The intense office cricket matches were an added bonus.

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