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Stumps England 154 for 7 (Pope 67, Jansen 4-34) lead South Africa 118 (Jansen 30, Robinson 5-49, Broad 4-41) by 36 runs
Seventeen wickets fell at The Oval on what was officially the third day but effectively the first after Friday's pause in honour of Queen Elizabeth II, whose death on Thursday was announced shortly after that day's play was washed out.
With only three days to play, the national anthems were finally sung - movingly without musical accompaniment by Laura Wright - including the first rendition of "God Save the King" at a sporting event since 1952. Then play commenced in what appeared to be slightly more batter-friendly conditions than when Ben Stokes won the toss and opted to bowl first under stormy skies 48 hours earlier.
It was the lines and lengths of the three England seamers that did the damage early on as the tourists' selection shake-up aimed at shoring up their batting flopped.
Robinson took 5 for 49, including 4 for 21 before lunch in an impressive eight-over spell with the new ball, and Broad took four to contain South Africa to a paltry first-innings 118.
Both England openers fell cheaply to Jansen - also South Africa's top-scorer - who fired a fuller ball into the top of Alex Lees' middle stump and then had Zak Crawley out lbw for a laboured 5 off 33 balls, the batter's decision to review reeking of desperation as replays showed he was plumb.
Jansen also removed Joe Root and debutant Harry Brook either side of a half-hour rain delay before England got their noses in front, only to lose Stokes and Pope in contrasting innings.
Stokes was gone in single figures edging Anrich Nortje to Sarel Erwee at first slip while Pope defied the run of play with a doughty 67 before giving an expensive Kagiso Rabada his first wicket, caught behind. Pope was assertive, compiling his score with 13 fours before he went fishing outside off-stump as Rabada, who conceded 78 runs for his two wickets, finally found his line.
Rabada also had Broad caught behind by Kyle Verreynne, who clung onto a late-wobbling edge to send England seven wickets down shortly before the players left the field for bad light at 6.28pm and didn't return, leaving the hosts with a lead of just 36.
Brook got off the mark with the first of two fours in three balls, driven through cover point and threaded slightly squarer. But he fell for 12, sending a shorter Jansen delivery to Rabada at backward square leg and Jansen ended with 4 for 34 from his 11 overs.
Earlier, Robinson - who came under criticism for his fitness levels at the end of England's ill-fated Ashes tour last winter and subsequently spent seven months out of the Test side with a series of health and injury problems - had been the architect of South Africa's remarkable collapse to 36 for 6.
His third ball - the ninth of the match, to remove South Africa captain Dean Elgar, was a gem - on a length and shaping in as Elgar played around it only to see his off stump go cartwheeling.
Anderson struck next over, drawing an outside edge from Erwee with a length ball outside off that moved ever so slightly away from the batter, who sent a catch straight to Foakes.
Robinson then clipped the top of off stump as Keegan Petersen left a fuller one, and then had Verreynne caught behind for a second-ball duck with an excellent length delivery that moved away off the pitch slightly and found the outside edge.
In between, Ryan Rickelton, playing his third Test - and first since April - after being brought in to replace the injured Rassie van der Dussen, had just started to settle when Broad lured him into a drive and had him caught behind for 11.
The visitors had brought in Wiaan Mulder for the first time this series, locked at 1-1, but he provided Robinson's fourth wicket - and Foakes' fourth catch - when he chased a full, wide ball that swung away late.
Zondo, chosen to play after Aiden Markram's struggle for form prompted yet another change, remained not out at lunch, as did Jansen. The pair put on a stand of 36 for the seventh wicket, easily the strongest union of South Africa's innings, but they needed more.
Jansen topped their scorecard with 30 after being overlooked for the second Test, which South Africa lost by an innings and 85 runs at Old Trafford, having earned a recall due to Lungi Ngidi's hamstring niggle.
Broad saw Jansen dropped twice - by Foakes behind the stumps and Pope at fourth slip - but surprised Zondo with a back-of-a-length delivery that went straight to Lees behind point to put South Africa at 72 for 7. It was the first in a run of three wickets for 18 runs in the space of 33 balls for Broad which closed out South Africa's innings.
Robinson claimed his fifth when he had Jansen comfortably taken by Root at first slip. Broad struck again with another shorter ball, Keshav Maharaj dragging his attempted pull onto his stumps, then had Anrich Nortje caught by Stokes at extra cover.
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