August 12, 2010

Reading the batsman

Video footage is well and good, but there are also plenty of clues for bowlers to pick up from their opponents' grips, back-lifts and stances
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What if a bowler could read a batsman's mind - predict how a batsman would play before bowling a ball to him or having watched him play? Wouldn't it bolster his chances, give him leeway to plan, and buttress his skill?

Some may call it wishful thinking, others a secret science, but often just looking at the grip with which a batsman holds his bat tells you something about his preferences in terms of shots, and the way he stands may help you place your fielders.

Will a batsman be a good driver of the ball or more comfortable scoring off the back foot? Will he prefer scoring runs through the on side or the off? It's important to observe the finer nuances of a batsman's grip, stance and back-lift to size him up and plan accordingly. While it may seem utterly useless in this day and age of exhaustive analysis based on video footage, which is available to almost all professional teams, observation was one of the tools players relied heavily on in the past, and it continues to be useful.

The grip
Most batsmen playing professional cricket hold the bat correctly with regard to the Vs made by thumbs and forefingers. The top hand is firmer and the V its thumb and forefinger makes opens out towards the outer edge of the bat, while the bottom hand plays only a supporting role.

A correct grip allows a proper downswing, which in turn enables a batsman to play the ball with the full face of the bat. The right grip is also imperative if you want to play the entire range of shots.

While the basics remain the same, lots of batsmen do enough with the grip to give some information away. For instance, Sanath Jayasuriya holds the bat close to the bottom of the handle, and Adam Gilchrist higher up. Now the coaching manual recommends that one holds the bat in the middle of the handle, but to say that successful players like these two don't hold the bat correctly would be grossly incorrect. While there are pros and cons to each approach, it all boils down to what suits your game best.

Holding the bat closer to the bottom gives you more control and helps you generate more power at the point of impact. In such cases, since the bottom hand becomes dominant very often, you don't need a high back-lift to hit the ball long and hard. That's why Jayasuriya is ever so good with his short-arm jabs. Such players generally are more comfortable on the back foot, and horizontal bat shots are their bread and butter. The flip side of holding the bat close to the base of the handle is that the arc of the downswing gets radically smaller, which in turn reduces the reach and makes driving off the front foot that much difficult. But some players are exceptions to this rule. Sachin Tendulkar holds the bat close to the bottom of the handle but has managed to overcome the shortcomings with ease.

On the contrary, Gilchrist's batting is built on the extension of the arms, and holding the bat high on the handle complements the extension. With this grip, the arc of the downswing becomes bigger, and hence increases the reach of the batsman. Lower-order batsmen tend to prefer this grip to enhance their reach. That's how the phrase "using the long handle" was coined. The flip side of such a grip is that you may not have enough control and you have to rely on the downswing to generate power. Players with such grips prefer playing on the front foot and can also be a little circumspect against quick short-pitched bowling. Gilchrist, like Tendulkar, is an exception here.

Then there were those like Javed Miandad, who had a gap between the top and bottom hands. The textbook recommends keeping the hands close to each other on the handle, to ensure that they move in unison. Yet Miandad's grip allowed him to manoeuvre the bowling and milk it for singles, though he possibly sacrificed some fluency in the bargain.

The stance
If the grip on the bat is the first giveaway, the manner in which a batsman stands is the second. While the coaching manual recommends the feet be about a shoulder span apart, lots of batsmen have toyed with different options to suit their game.

People who stand with their feet too close to each other are often good back-foot players and the ones with wider stances are generally stronger on the front foot. Here, too, there are snags: you lose some balance if both feet are too close, and too wide apart results in lack of foot movement.

A stance that's too side-on or too open-chested also tells you a bit about the strengths and weaknesses of a batsman. While you'd be suspect against inswingers if your stance is too side-on, you'd struggle against away-going deliveries if it is too open. Sachin Tendulkar's is the closest to what would be a perfect stance - though even he tended to lean too much towards the off side when he started.

The textbook recommends keeping the hands close to each other on the handle, to ensure that they move in unison. Yet Miandad's grip, with hands apart, allowed him to manoeuvre the bowling and milk it for singles

Even the way you take guard can give the bowler a pointer or two. Generally players who ask for a leg-stump guard are good on the off side, for they try to make room by staying beside the line. And the ones who ask for middle stump are good on the leg side, for their endeavour is to whip it through the leg side. It's not a hard-and-fast rule but any information is better than none at all.

If a batsman is falling over, with his head not in line with his toes - which is the case with a lot of batsmen - he will predominantly be an on-side player, but would still be susceptible to sharp, incoming deliveries. Also, the intended ground shots on the leg side will probably travel in the air for a while, and hence positioning a fielder at short midwicket comes in handy. Such a batsman would also be unsure of his off stump and hence might play balls that are meant to be left alone.

The back-lift
The last clues before the ball is finally bowled come from the height of the back-lift and its arc. Ideally the bat should come down from somewhere between the off stump and first slip, to ensure that the bat moves straight in the downswing.

Players who bring the bat in from wider than second slip, like Rahul Dravid, need to make a loop at the top of the downswing, or else they will find it difficult to negotiate sharp incoming deliveries. Should they fail to make that loop, the bat won't come down straight, which means meeting the ball at an angle instead of straight on.

Batsmen with higher back-lifts find it difficult to deal with changes of pace, because with higher back-lifts it's tougher to pull out of a shot after committing. Also, there's always a possibility they will be late in bringing the bat down to keep yorkers out. Ergo, yorkers and slower ones might just do the trick.

Since players with short back-lifts, like Paul Collingwood and Andrew Symonds, don't have a reasonable downswing, they rely on the pace of the ball to generate power for their shots. They tend to struggle if the ball has no pace on it, so taking the pace off isn't a bad move against them. On the contrary, short back-lifts are almost ideal to keep yorkers out with.

If anyone has to think on his feet in cricket, it is the bowler. For it is he who initiates the action and everyone else reacts to what he delivers. Yet, these days he's the game's underdog, constantly at risk of being on the receiving end, and bound to follow a plan to render himself effective. Since video data isn't available to teams before they reach a certain level, most bowlers rely on observing the finer nuances of their opponents in order to strategise.

Former India opener Aakash Chopra is the author of Beyond the Blues, an account of the 2007-08 Ranji Trophy season. His website is here

Comments have now been closed for this article

  • ACricketBrain on August 13, 2010, 23:06 GMT

    Great article, Aakash! I learnt some of these tips regarding a batsman's grip and stance from an older carribean guy I used to play with and use them all the time to set fields and get batsmen out. I see some of the comments on international players who are exceptions and have the talent and resources to overcome these weaknesses. But at the level of club cricket I play, these are very powerful tips.

  • Woody111 on August 13, 2010, 4:23 GMT

    Nice work Akash; very true observations indeed. I've fiddled with my stance a great deal and have found after 3 years that keeping it as simple as possible works for me. I'm right handed and open the batting; keeping my right elbow against my body has helped keep a straight bat. My right foot is on off stump while my left is on middle and fairly open. This seems to work for me as I feel balanced and ready to move forward or back. My back-lift is relatively short as I'm facing the swinging ball early on. To a few comments here; this article series is designed to point out some aspects of cricket with some international players used to illustrate a point. It is not meant to mention every single bloody player or cover every exception to the rule! Hence your favourite player may not be mentioned as it's meant to be educational and informative about aspects of the game - not its players.

  • on August 13, 2010, 3:10 GMT

    This is as good to a bowler as it is to a batsman, this is true cricket to me, the outfoxing of a player. Good article for young bowlers to read especially who can drop their heads after bowling the ball they intended but it went for 4 as they happened to bowl to the batsman's preferred stance.

  • spin_king4 on August 13, 2010, 0:43 GMT

    Tariq, i agree with alby and although you say that ponting is excellent of incoming bowling, as an australian watching him regularly it is clear that if you want to get him out early it is with the incoming ball lbw, he falls this way many times early (as he has done to asif last few times) because of a high back lift and his desire to lunge forward early. and to sehwag he is a great player but he too dows have still a problem with the incoming ball particularly if it is a short ball that jags back in (the reason why he was dropped) and as alby said the reason they still suceed is not because they do bot have a weakness to the incoming ball but becasue they practice and work out a way to combat this weakness, therefore the bowler must analyse again and ajust their tactics again.

  • on August 12, 2010, 22:09 GMT

    Love this article, great analysis. People who like this should read Mohammad Asif's assessment on Dravid, he absolutely figured one of the greatest batsman I've ever seen out.

  • mdavidwesley on August 12, 2010, 18:32 GMT

    Interesting points. Though all the details of techniques seem to have an exception, it is better to know few details like this instead of simply hurling the leather at the batsman without much thought. The article at least reminds one to think of ways to bowl at a particular batsman. Good one Akash.

  • alby1983 on August 12, 2010, 15:58 GMT

    TARIQ, you can talk about all the star players who are exceptions but perhaps you shoud give a thought to the fact their 'exception' has more to do with their ridiculous ability at the game. These people are made aware of their faults and train day in day out to improve their whole game with the best coaches, facilities analysis in the world. Or sometimes, like many of the cricketers mentioned, they are just freaks of the game.

    I don't think this article was written to explain which professional cricketers plays which way, but for amateur players and in particular captains who could use it to improve their knowledge of the game.

    The mentioned players were only examples of high backlifts, high/low/open grips etc. Watch a half decent club level cricket match with this information, where the majority of cricketers play, Im sure you'll get some evidence this stuff is right.

  • harryspooner on August 12, 2010, 15:39 GMT

    I completely agree with akash, reading the batsmen's stance and the grip can be hugely successful and unlike what vishalnaik says it can be hugely useful in the death. It is at the death that the batsmen are premeditating so keeping an eye on shifts in stance etc can help hugely. I don't know why most bowlers these days don't seem to read these things..

  • SenorPepper on August 12, 2010, 14:28 GMT

    Wow! Several former test and international players and many coaches in here- judging by their very incisive comments. However, Aakash, I know nothing about any of the tidbits you shared in your article and so, am very grateful. This is what some of us (I hope there are at least a few people who know very little about the game and can definitely use any critical information to practice, play better) need. Hopefully, some of the coaches/players who were eager to share their wisdom gained over the years through playing at the highest level will also share more coherent and practically helpful advice. Thank you Cricinfo!

  • manasvi_lingam on August 12, 2010, 14:21 GMT

    Where's the discussion about Lara's backlift which was high and yet it didn't hamper him much? And what about Ponting, Kallis, Inzy, Seteve Waugh, etc? Too much emphasis on Tendulkar and the other Indians such as Laxman and Sehwag have been neglected. And of course where are Simon Katich and Chanderpaul?

  • ACricketBrain on August 13, 2010, 23:06 GMT

    Great article, Aakash! I learnt some of these tips regarding a batsman's grip and stance from an older carribean guy I used to play with and use them all the time to set fields and get batsmen out. I see some of the comments on international players who are exceptions and have the talent and resources to overcome these weaknesses. But at the level of club cricket I play, these are very powerful tips.

  • Woody111 on August 13, 2010, 4:23 GMT

    Nice work Akash; very true observations indeed. I've fiddled with my stance a great deal and have found after 3 years that keeping it as simple as possible works for me. I'm right handed and open the batting; keeping my right elbow against my body has helped keep a straight bat. My right foot is on off stump while my left is on middle and fairly open. This seems to work for me as I feel balanced and ready to move forward or back. My back-lift is relatively short as I'm facing the swinging ball early on. To a few comments here; this article series is designed to point out some aspects of cricket with some international players used to illustrate a point. It is not meant to mention every single bloody player or cover every exception to the rule! Hence your favourite player may not be mentioned as it's meant to be educational and informative about aspects of the game - not its players.

  • on August 13, 2010, 3:10 GMT

    This is as good to a bowler as it is to a batsman, this is true cricket to me, the outfoxing of a player. Good article for young bowlers to read especially who can drop their heads after bowling the ball they intended but it went for 4 as they happened to bowl to the batsman's preferred stance.

  • spin_king4 on August 13, 2010, 0:43 GMT

    Tariq, i agree with alby and although you say that ponting is excellent of incoming bowling, as an australian watching him regularly it is clear that if you want to get him out early it is with the incoming ball lbw, he falls this way many times early (as he has done to asif last few times) because of a high back lift and his desire to lunge forward early. and to sehwag he is a great player but he too dows have still a problem with the incoming ball particularly if it is a short ball that jags back in (the reason why he was dropped) and as alby said the reason they still suceed is not because they do bot have a weakness to the incoming ball but becasue they practice and work out a way to combat this weakness, therefore the bowler must analyse again and ajust their tactics again.

  • on August 12, 2010, 22:09 GMT

    Love this article, great analysis. People who like this should read Mohammad Asif's assessment on Dravid, he absolutely figured one of the greatest batsman I've ever seen out.

  • mdavidwesley on August 12, 2010, 18:32 GMT

    Interesting points. Though all the details of techniques seem to have an exception, it is better to know few details like this instead of simply hurling the leather at the batsman without much thought. The article at least reminds one to think of ways to bowl at a particular batsman. Good one Akash.

  • alby1983 on August 12, 2010, 15:58 GMT

    TARIQ, you can talk about all the star players who are exceptions but perhaps you shoud give a thought to the fact their 'exception' has more to do with their ridiculous ability at the game. These people are made aware of their faults and train day in day out to improve their whole game with the best coaches, facilities analysis in the world. Or sometimes, like many of the cricketers mentioned, they are just freaks of the game.

    I don't think this article was written to explain which professional cricketers plays which way, but for amateur players and in particular captains who could use it to improve their knowledge of the game.

    The mentioned players were only examples of high backlifts, high/low/open grips etc. Watch a half decent club level cricket match with this information, where the majority of cricketers play, Im sure you'll get some evidence this stuff is right.

  • harryspooner on August 12, 2010, 15:39 GMT

    I completely agree with akash, reading the batsmen's stance and the grip can be hugely successful and unlike what vishalnaik says it can be hugely useful in the death. It is at the death that the batsmen are premeditating so keeping an eye on shifts in stance etc can help hugely. I don't know why most bowlers these days don't seem to read these things..

  • SenorPepper on August 12, 2010, 14:28 GMT

    Wow! Several former test and international players and many coaches in here- judging by their very incisive comments. However, Aakash, I know nothing about any of the tidbits you shared in your article and so, am very grateful. This is what some of us (I hope there are at least a few people who know very little about the game and can definitely use any critical information to practice, play better) need. Hopefully, some of the coaches/players who were eager to share their wisdom gained over the years through playing at the highest level will also share more coherent and practically helpful advice. Thank you Cricinfo!

  • manasvi_lingam on August 12, 2010, 14:21 GMT

    Where's the discussion about Lara's backlift which was high and yet it didn't hamper him much? And what about Ponting, Kallis, Inzy, Seteve Waugh, etc? Too much emphasis on Tendulkar and the other Indians such as Laxman and Sehwag have been neglected. And of course where are Simon Katich and Chanderpaul?

  • waspsting on August 12, 2010, 14:03 GMT

    i agree with most of this article - its interesting to hear it articulated. Basically, you intuitively pick this stuff up. i also agree with Tariq Haque - these clues are as naught to watching a player for a bit and then assessing him. there are tons of exceptions of every rule. the unusual cases are the most interesting, of course. Lara's crazy back-lift and his tendancy to play away from his body on the cover drive would make you think he'd inside nick the ball onto his stumps now and then. I've never seen him do it. Aravinda De Silva had the strangest technique of all.

  • on August 12, 2010, 12:22 GMT

    A good artical as always. Keep them coming.

  • on August 12, 2010, 10:19 GMT

    On Incoming bowls, there are numerous players who have high backlift but they are extremely good players of incoming bowls. One is of course Ricky Ponting. Sehwag has high-backlift but he is now able to play incoming deliveries. Weakness cannot be gauged just by stance or back-lift or other such things. You can gauge a batmen only by the analyzing how he play various deliveries.

  • vishalnaik1982 on August 12, 2010, 10:08 GMT

    akash though your analysis is good u forget one thing ie situation . eg if in one day last overs are being bowled batsman will try to score in any way so bowlers analysis on above mentioned criteria is not going to help

  • FAB_ALI on August 12, 2010, 9:33 GMT

    I am really surprised that you you have not mentioned Chanderpaul anywhere in the article. A bowler must be as confused bowling to him as a batsman facing Malinga thinks every ball "Yorker or Bouncer". But, I don't think a bowler can work all this things out while being in his run up or delivery stride, it would require an enormous amount of homework to be done by him and then also the perfect execution is never guaranteed.

  • team_chandigarh on August 12, 2010, 8:29 GMT

    i think such articles are waste of time... u cant really generalize cricket technique wen players wid so many different techniques have played d game and done so well!!!

  • brenno23 on August 12, 2010, 8:00 GMT

    love the article Aakash, i really do like your writing and find it very informative, and globalcricketlover i think that Amla's backlift would fit into a similar category as Rahul Dravid's, and you will often hear commentators saying that the style of his backlift is "subcontinental". Thanks guys, great writing Aakash!

  • on August 12, 2010, 7:26 GMT

    How about the stance? Crouching or classical, as in the case of Sachin, vs. upright, for someone like Trescothick?

  • vaks on August 12, 2010, 6:21 GMT

    wat abt brian lara,ponting?one more thing is missing here.......sachin uses d bat with short handle(but total length of bat still remains same as per law) .....that's why he's able to play all strokes both off d back foot as well as on front foot while holding bottom to d handle.......

  • on August 12, 2010, 6:20 GMT

    None of the rule is valid for more than a couple of players. There are so many exception to each and every tactic that you have mentioned. Nowadays, batters are strange. For example, Dhoni, Shehwag and yuvraj have managed to hit sixes on yorker length balls despite having high back-lifts.

  • GlobalCricketLover on August 12, 2010, 5:46 GMT

    Good one Akash! Would be nice to consider players like Hashim Amla who has almost a rotation-type movement before he strikes the ball. When it comes to stance, the weirdest would be of Chanderpaul/Yardy.

  • Sitting-on-a-gate on August 12, 2010, 5:43 GMT

    On the issue of backlift - I would like to point out that Dravid has an almost exaggerated one, with the bat coming down from near his head. Guess that seems to be why he has always been susceptible (sort of) to the incoming ball..

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  • Sitting-on-a-gate on August 12, 2010, 5:43 GMT

    On the issue of backlift - I would like to point out that Dravid has an almost exaggerated one, with the bat coming down from near his head. Guess that seems to be why he has always been susceptible (sort of) to the incoming ball..

  • GlobalCricketLover on August 12, 2010, 5:46 GMT

    Good one Akash! Would be nice to consider players like Hashim Amla who has almost a rotation-type movement before he strikes the ball. When it comes to stance, the weirdest would be of Chanderpaul/Yardy.

  • on August 12, 2010, 6:20 GMT

    None of the rule is valid for more than a couple of players. There are so many exception to each and every tactic that you have mentioned. Nowadays, batters are strange. For example, Dhoni, Shehwag and yuvraj have managed to hit sixes on yorker length balls despite having high back-lifts.

  • vaks on August 12, 2010, 6:21 GMT

    wat abt brian lara,ponting?one more thing is missing here.......sachin uses d bat with short handle(but total length of bat still remains same as per law) .....that's why he's able to play all strokes both off d back foot as well as on front foot while holding bottom to d handle.......

  • on August 12, 2010, 7:26 GMT

    How about the stance? Crouching or classical, as in the case of Sachin, vs. upright, for someone like Trescothick?

  • brenno23 on August 12, 2010, 8:00 GMT

    love the article Aakash, i really do like your writing and find it very informative, and globalcricketlover i think that Amla's backlift would fit into a similar category as Rahul Dravid's, and you will often hear commentators saying that the style of his backlift is "subcontinental". Thanks guys, great writing Aakash!

  • team_chandigarh on August 12, 2010, 8:29 GMT

    i think such articles are waste of time... u cant really generalize cricket technique wen players wid so many different techniques have played d game and done so well!!!

  • FAB_ALI on August 12, 2010, 9:33 GMT

    I am really surprised that you you have not mentioned Chanderpaul anywhere in the article. A bowler must be as confused bowling to him as a batsman facing Malinga thinks every ball "Yorker or Bouncer". But, I don't think a bowler can work all this things out while being in his run up or delivery stride, it would require an enormous amount of homework to be done by him and then also the perfect execution is never guaranteed.

  • vishalnaik1982 on August 12, 2010, 10:08 GMT

    akash though your analysis is good u forget one thing ie situation . eg if in one day last overs are being bowled batsman will try to score in any way so bowlers analysis on above mentioned criteria is not going to help

  • on August 12, 2010, 10:19 GMT

    On Incoming bowls, there are numerous players who have high backlift but they are extremely good players of incoming bowls. One is of course Ricky Ponting. Sehwag has high-backlift but he is now able to play incoming deliveries. Weakness cannot be gauged just by stance or back-lift or other such things. You can gauge a batmen only by the analyzing how he play various deliveries.