Anderson and Stokes are included after recovering from injury, having played against each other in the County Championship match at Southport, but it is the inclusion of Rashid, the legspinner, that is the most intriguing name.
Rashid offers England both the possibility of playing two spinners or the option of dropping Moeen Ali, who endured a poor game at Lord's and has a bowling average of 92 in seven Tests this year. In seven County Championship matches this season, Rashid has taken 20 wickets at 35.30 and scored 337 runs at 37.44.
Rashid played in all three of the Tests between England and Pakistan in the UAE before Christmas. While he bounced back from first-innings figures of 0 for 163 to claim 5 for 64 in his second innings on debut, to take England within sight of victory, he was less successful in the other two games and finished with a bowling average of 69.50 from the series. Fielding two spinners against a side especially proficient at playing spin bowling might prove a risk.
Speaking before the squad was confirmed, England coach Trevor Bayliss said: "Pakistan have just the one left-hander in their top-order with the ball spinning into the right-handers. Getting the ball spinning the ball away from the bat might make it a little more difficult so I'm sure that will be discussed
"We want to pick the best spinners we have. We've had a couple of guys playing over the last 12 months or so who are deemed the best spinners in England. We've got to make do with what we've got."
James Vince, who is averaging 18.66 with the bat after four Tests, is also retained, but there is no place for the Middlesex seamer Toby Roland-Jones, who was called into the Lord's squad in the absence of Anderson and Stokes.
Anderson bowled 22 overs against Durham, taking 3 for 58, having been ruled out of the first Test after suffering a stress fracture of his right shoulder blade although he had come very close to playing but the majority of the selectors went with the advice of the medical team.
Stokes, meanwhile, had bowled more than 25 overs in the match by tea on the third day, his first outing with the ball since undergoing knee surgery after the opening Test against Sri Lanka in May.
Steven Finn and Jake Ball have both retained their places although Ball, who made his debut at Lord's, reported tightness in his left thigh and will be assessed by the England medical staff.