Ashton Agar's 98 is the highest by a No. 11 batsman in Test history. The previous highest was 95 by Tino Best of West Indies, also against England, at Edgbaston in 2012. The previous-best for Australia was by Glenn McGrath, who handed Agar his Baggy Green on Wednesday; McGrath scored 61 against New Zealand at the Gabba in 2004. Agar's 98 was also only the second half-century by a No.11 batsman in an Ashes Test - the previous one was by Frederick Spofforth in this match, way back in 1885.
When Agar drove James Anderson through midwicket and picked up three runs to move from 43 to 46, he broke the record for the highest score by a No. 11 batsman on debut. That was previously held by Warwick Armstrong, who scored an unbeaten 45 against England in 1902. Click here for a list of highest scores by No. 11 batsmen on debut.
The 163-run partnership between Phil Hughes and Agar was the highest ever for the tenth wicket in Tests. This was also only the fifth hundred partnership for the tenth wicket in an Ashes Test, and the 23rd tenth-wicket century partnership in all Tests.
This was only the ninth instance of a No.11 batsman top-scoring in an innings. Four of these nine instances have been by Australia batsmen, the most by a team, and four of these have come against England, the most against a team. The previous instance of a No. 11 top-scoring was by Nathan Lyon, the player who Agar replaced in the XI - Lyon scored 14 out of a total of 47 against South Africa in Cape Town in 2011. The previous such instance in an Ashes Test was way back in 1896, when Tom McKibbin scored 16 out of 44 at The Oval.
A break-up of Agar's runs against each bowler indicates just how proficient he was against both pace and spin. Against Graeme Swann's offspin, he scored at a run a ball, taking 36 off 36, including four fours and two sixes. Against the three quick bowlers, he scored 62 off 65, including eight fours. And as his wagon-wheel shows, he scored on both sides of the wicket, scoring 42 runs on the off side, and 56 on the leg side.
While Agar was dominant against both pace and spin, Hughes scored his runs almost entirely against the fast bowlers. Against Anderson, Finn and Broad, he scored 74 off 89 balls. Against Swann, though, he only managed 7 off 52 balls.
Hughes' unbeaten 81 was easily his highest in ten Test innings against England - his previous-best was 36 in Cardiff in 2009.
Agar was clearly the star of the day, but England had their heroes too. James Anderson picked up his 14th five-for in Tests, his second against Australia and his fifth at Trent Bridge; at no other venue has he taken as many five-fors. He ended the day with 44 wickets at Trent Bridge, the highest by any bowler at this ground.
For the first time in his 44-Test career, Jonathan Trott was dismissed for a first-ball duck. This was also his first duck in England; his three previous ones were in Sydney, Ahmedabad and Mumbai. With Ed Cowan also being dismissed without scoring, this was the 11th instance of two zeroes by No.3 batsmen in an Ashes Test - the previous such instance was in 1995.