He began the second innings needing 21 runs and shortly after tea lofted Nathan Lyon down the ground for three, the landmark greeted by a standing ovation when it was announced to the crowd at the end of the over with the Australia players also acknowledging the achievement.
Taylor, who is set to play his 100th Test when New Zealand face India in Wellington, made his debut against South Africa at Johannesburg in 2007 and has 19th Test centuries which puts him second behind Kane Williamson for his country.
However, he could not add more to his total after the record-breaking shot when he was bowled by a cracking delivery from Pat Cummins to end his series in Australia with a disappointing 152 runs at 25.33, after starting with 80 in Perth, although that still appeared likely to make him New Zealand's second-highest run-scorer in the series.
Taylor now holds New Zealand's record in both Tests and ODIs having also passed Fleming in the 50-over format last February against Bangladesh in Dunedin.
278 NZ Test Match cricketers. @RossLTaylor You deserve to sit at the top of the mountain. Your place in NZ cricketing greatness is assured. Congrats on an amazing achievement mate. pic.twitter.com/AFcIZM1kZX— Brendon McCullum (@Bazmccullum) January 6, 2020
After breaking that record, Taylor indicated he hoped to play for at least a couple more years. "I definitely don't have an end date," he said. "As everyone tells me you're a long time retired and you'll know when the best time is to retire. I just take it a couple of months at a time. I don't look too far ahead, but all going well I've hopefully got a couple of years left with the New Zealand team."
Andrew McGlashan is a deputy editor at ESPNcricinfo