Sidharth Monga
Assistant editor, ESPNcricinfo

Decision Review System

Let's talk about the DRS

Is the DRS implementable in its current form and has it moved too far away from its initial purpose of eliminating howlers?

Sidharth Monga

June 26, 2011

Comments: 98 | Text size: A | A

Virender Sehwag became the first player to be dismissed via the review system when he was given out lbw , Sri Lanka v India, 1st Test, SSC, Colombo, 4th day, July 26, 2008
Virender Sehwag was the first batsman to be given out lbw on review, and it was a contentious decision © AFP
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As has been the case with cricket of late, a debate as important as the implementation of the Decision Review System (DRS) has degenerated to India v the world. The BCCI's my-way-or-the-highway approach and the shrill response from some of the other countries threatens to stand in the way of a reasonable discussion about the genuine issues regarding the DRS in its current form.

Making DRS mandatory is a move that has huge consequences for the game, and we can't talk enough before implementing it. No matter how persuasive the argument for DRS is, no matter how heavy-handed the BCCI can sometimes be, in its present form the DRS needs discussion. On various levels.

The first might be naïve, and can be got out of the way quickly. The DRS does not sit right with a sport that prides itself in fining people for showing dissent over umpire's decisions. And what of the poor bowlers; now they can't celebrate spontaneously, a raised finger no longer guarantees them a wicket. They have to watch the striker discuss painstakingly with the non-striker whether he looked not-out, and whether it would be fun to challenge the decision despite being plumb because he is the last recognised batsman. Such things are irritants, yes, but a crucial inside edge that wasn't spotted is a bigger problem for the public that pays to watch cricket.

There are other issues, ones that concern the tools being used for the system, that should strike a chord, concerns also aired by Sambit Bal and a few informed blogs. At the heart of the argument lies the unease with the blurring lines between devices for entertainment and decision-making, with the broadcasters' licensees assuming the umpires' role, especially when the ICC neither pays nor controls them.

The handling of ball-tracking technology by humans has produced some silly moments. One such example was when Virender Sehwag, quite symbolically, became the first batsman to be given lbw after a bowler challenged the original not-out decision. The ball had hit his front pad barely in front of leg stump, and then deviated onto the back pad in front of middle stump, but the tracking device failed to note that deflection and joined the dots directly, hardly evidence you would want to be hanged by.

There are other examples, too, and the doubts specifically revolve around the predictive element of the technology. Neither of the two common brands of tracking technology, Hawk Eye and Virtual Eye, is perfect or immune to human mistakes. Our leap of faith, however, is absolute - so absolute that commentators and spectators have stopped using their brains. Virtual Eye admits that entertainment and decision-making are horses of two different colours. It prefers to provide the umpires with facts until the ball strikes the batsman, and then leave the rest to the on-field umpire, who knows which way and how hard the wind is blowing and how the pitch is behaving, better than the system whose camera is not even placed right behind the stumps.

Hawk Eye is more optimistic about being able to replace the umpire, and is also keen to point out flaws with Virtual Eye. The BCCI remains unconvinced. Why the BCCI is not convinced is not clear, just like it is not clear how every now and then a projection looks improbable, or how it is perfect at 2.4 metres but unreliable at 2.5, how it judges the amount of spin when an offbreak hits a batsman on the full, or the bounce when a batsman is hit on a half-volley, or why we don't get to see simulations of some balls at all, or why - if it is used as an umpiring tool - it is not minded by the ICC and the ACSU, or why we have to blindly believe its accuracy and not assess it independently, or why the ICC doesn't say so if it has assessed it independently.


Ryan Harris called for a review immediately after being given out lbw, Australia v England, 2nd Test, Adelaide, December 3, 2010
Bowlers' celebrations are often cut short by the batsman asking for a review © Getty Images
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All these doubts may seem like splitting hairs, complicating the game, but complicate is exactly what DRS in its current form does. The original purpose of the system wasn't to predict whether the ball would have clipped the leg bail. Its purpose was to spot edges (or their absence), balls pitched outside leg and balls hitting the batsman outside off when offering a shot for lbws. It was introduced for umpires who have trouble grasping basic umpiring rules, and for the odd big mistake made by the good officials. It wasn't meant to be a contest between Ian Gould reckoning that the offbreak would have hit leg stump and Hawk Eye's prediction that it would have missed it by centimetres. When the ICC meets in Hong Kong, it is pertinent that it establishes a distinction between entertainment and decision-making tools, and also reminds itself that the DRS' original purpose was to eliminate howlers.

One of the howler-eliminating tools that the players - among them Sachin Tendulkar - and fans appreciate is Hot Spot, which is based more on fact than conjecture. Rare exceptions aside, it detects edges accurately, and enjoys more support from players than ball-tracking technology. Without Hot Spot, the DRS can be self-defeating. Consider, for example, Virat Kohli's caught behind dismissal down the leg side in the recent Sabina Park Test. Going by Kohli's reaction, he would have challenged the call had the DRS been available, or in India's case thrust upon them. The replays, however, were not conclusive either way because of a lack of technology. Such cases rob sides of reviews without actually proving them wrong, and lend validity to Tendulkar's view that the DRS is no good without Hot Spot.

Which brings us to the important question: who will pay for Hot Spot? The ICC, which doesn't make much money from bilateral series, does not want to foot the bill because it might eat into its development budgets. The broadcasters have already paid exorbitantly to buy television rights. The home boards are not rushing to part with their profits. Still, these aren't valid reasons for waiving the minimum technology requirements for the implementation of the DRS. There are unconfirmed reports that when new broadcasting contracts are awarded, Hot Spot will be one of the minimum requirements, which is bound to reduce the value of television rights and affect the boards' revenues. Good luck convincing the BCCI to sell rights at a lower cost, and in countries where Test cricket doesn't invite lucrative TV deals.

It will be nothing short of a coup if the ICC can ensure the availability of Hot Spot in every international match once every host country has signed new TV deals. It will be great common sense if ball-tracking technology is used only until the point of contact, so that we stay true to the original purpose of the DRS, which is to eliminate howlers.

While on the subject of howlers, why stop the elimination of mistakes against a team after it has exhausted its two reviews? On one hand it seems fair punishment for a team's poor use of the system, but it remains denial of justice. It is impractical to ask the television umpire to review every decision, especially in not-out cases because the next ball is delivered quickly. Still, we need to keep looking for a way out.

There are other teething issues that need to be discussed, for they have the potential to turn matches. In a World Cup game, India challenged an lbw call because the umpire's signal of leg-byes eliminated the only thing they thought could come in the way of the lbw: an inside edge. The replays showed an inside edge, the umpire went on to change leg-byes to runs, but India were docked one review, even though the umpire's error, established through replays, was what made them go for it.

During another World Cup game, Abdur Razzak was given out lbw before he successfully reviewed the call, but while the ball was counted, the four leg-byes weren't, which is the current regulation. The team was deprived of a scoring opportunity by an umpiring decision, which was proved to be wrong. In tennis, such points are played again, and fairly so. The ICC is lucky that incident occurred at a relatively innocuous time. Imagine a similar situation with two runs required off the last ball of the World Cup final. These examples are anomalies and should have been dealt with at the first available opportunity. The first available opportunity was at the ICC cricket committee meeting soon after the World Cup. Did they even study such minor but potentially controversial incidents before passing the DRS in its current form?

Nothing in life is perfect, though, and all these doubts about the DRS don't deny that, in principle, the system is good for cricket. Yet the ICC's - and the cricketing world's - obsession with getting India on board, as opposed to making the DRS as foolproof and as true to the cause as possible, is rather unhealthy. Perhaps part of the reason is the BCCI's unflattering reputation. Perhaps the BCCI's reasons for opposing the DRS in its current form are different from those stated above. You never know with the BCCI, do you?

On the other hand, we have the rest of the world not open to discussion because it is the BCCI that is raising the issue against DRS. It is evident in how the otherwise terrific commentators in England and the West Indies have moaned more in the last month than they have discussed the DRS since its inception. Newspapers in England have written that India don't want the system because Tendulkar and MS Dhoni don't want to fall lbw to Graeme Swann when not offering shots. Go figure.

To misquote Elvis Presley, we need a little more conversation … "all this aggravation ain't satisfactioning me."

Sidharth Monga is an assistant editor at ESPNcricinfo

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Posted by kool_Indian on (June 29, 2011, 19:18 GMT)

Though I was skeptical about the article, I still went ahead and read the article and wow - this article was just awesome. Sidharth Monga asks all the right questions unlike Sambit Bal's more ambiguous article. Great work Sidharth - really very good piece of writing...!!!

Posted by shishirp on (June 29, 2011, 13:13 GMT)

I hope that the DRS, in future, doesn't become a reason for disrespecting the umpires / their job. Guess many of the comments / articles assume the umpires as outsiders to the whole sport, which is not correct. While there is so much of hoopla around umpire's mistakes and how it is a paid job and they are supposed to be 100% correct at all times, do we ever give a thought to a mistake committed by bowlers, or batsmen, or fielders for that matter? Ever imagine players not paid due to bad performance? These mistakes are taken as a part of the game, then why not umpire's? FIFA understands this, and hence resists use of technology where it is not required. That's another extreme, though!

The use of DRS is a step in the right direction, of course, as it will reduce the errors (hope so). But again, have we factored in the fact that the decision will still be at umpire's discretion? As Sidharth agrees, "miles to go before we finally get this right"!!

Posted by   on (June 29, 2011, 12:03 GMT)

Dear Mr Raghuram. Unfortunately i did not see the India V England match in the world cup, so i can not comment on the decision, perhaps the third umpire made a bad call, perhaps not. I find the 2.5 m rule to be perfectly acceptable. It has always been so that a batsman who has advanced down the pitch has been afforded some benefit of the doubt. Like many critics of Hawkeye i don't think it's predicitve qualities can be 100%, though i believe it is a very good tool and should be used in full. With the benefit of the doubt being given for a player well down the pitch and the need for the whole ball to be hitting or missing the stumps for a decision to be overturned i believe there is enough margin for error built in to make it completely satisfactory. Don't you think there is more correct decisions with the use of Hawkeye than without? There will always be some mistakes.

Posted by JMLowman on (June 28, 2011, 21:23 GMT)

Enjoyable article, and it is a complex issue in some ways. But it's also very simple. DRS means more decisions are correct. There are lots of details to address, but these can evolve over time, just as for example regulations in ODIs are reviewed and change. Personally I would like to see a change where an unsuccessful challenge on which the outcome was inconclusive and therefore the on field decision stayed in place did not result in a lost review. That would iron out some of the issues such as with the Bell decision that seems to have become so totemic. You'll never get any 100% accurate system, but there's ample evidence from the England series I've watched with DRS that it enhances the game.

Posted by moBlue on (June 28, 2011, 20:41 GMT)

whereas i think "accurate prediction" or even a so-called "more accurate" ***prediction*** of what may have happened, if there was no impact, with or without the use of technology, is a logical fallacy, or a fool's errand [[[i think *all* possibilities, including that the ball may have shot off to outer space after another impact with the bat while on its way to the stumps, or whatever, are *equally* likely, in the future, by definition... since they have not yet happened! so "more accurate" or "less accurate" possibilities are meaningless, in cricket, and in much of life, as we know it... this is not the same thing as a coin toss with only two permitted possibilities, i.e., the coin is not "permitted" to stand on its side! no such guarantees in cricket!]]], despite that *fact*, as i see it, i think it is possible to calibrate ball trackers with actual balls bowled in the past... then, if the technology proves to be "predictive" at a high rate [say, more than 90%], it *could* be used.

Posted by m_ilind on (June 28, 2011, 16:39 GMT)

Great article! Discusses all aspects of DRS

Posted by GrassBanks on (June 28, 2011, 9:04 GMT)

@inswing: The question is: Has the ICC bothered to verify the ball-tracking tools by independent experts and in all conditions around the world? If not, how can it recommend it to be used when it hasn't bothered to verify the tool being used?

Posted by   on (June 28, 2011, 7:18 GMT)

Quoting Monga: "or how it is perfect at 2.4 metres but unreliable at 2.5, how it judges the amount of spin when an offbreak hits a batsman on the full, or the bounce when a batsman is hit on a half-volley, or why we don't get to see simulations of some balls at all" - The current ICC playing conditions require that when the batsman's pads are hit on the full by the ball, the umpire is to assume that the ball will travel in a straight line after pitching negating the effect of spin or seam on the umpire's decision. The Hawk-Eye has been designed to implement this specific playing condition on use to be consistent with the umpiring regulations. This situation renders both the Hawk-Eye's and umpire's calls the same and why you might not find path simulations for full tosses.

Posted by   on (June 28, 2011, 7:12 GMT)

Cont'd: Tendulkar's LBW by Bucknor in 2004 is famous as well as Dhoni's reprieve by Australian umpire Hill in the 3rd 2008 CB series game vs SL where he was plumb to Murali but not given. That single decision let India to the finals of the series and they eventually won it changing the face of cricket over the last few years. That series was defining in the sense that Aus cricket has been in the decline since then as their aggression has been muted (Ref: Gilchrist) while the Indians have picked up on the aggressive moves. Using Hawk-Eye provides no extra cost to the Hot Spot currently and the ICC's latest move has reduced both the technical effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of the system though something is better than nothing. The supporters of the DRS want it implemented at any cost just to stop Dhoni and the BCCI from whining about the umpiring all the time despite resisting the fact that the inaccurate Hawk-Eye can suggest more evidence than an average umpire on a tough job.

Posted by   on (June 28, 2011, 7:05 GMT)

Dear Monga, the point of view is not that the DRS is a magical cure to all maladies. The point on offer is simply that it is better than the umpires alone. For each gaffe associated with the DRS, 7 0r more gaffes by umpires alone can be picked out. The DRS is not here to make decisions, it intends to only provide evidential help. This answers Aditya Anchuri's question. Just like the umpire, the DRS allows Benefit of Doubt to the decisions and that is why the 2.5m rule and ball clipping the bail allowances are in place. In such circumstances, the umpire's call is allowed to reduce controversy. It was made to offer some leeway for the critics but it looks like the critics haven't understood how that works yet. The 1 or 2 review limit is used instead of an unlimited number to restrict it's use to identify howlers. Removing Hawk-Eye (however inaccurate it may be) defeats that purpose as most of the howlers are related to LBWs.

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