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When a choke isn't a choke

South Africa losing the plot against New Zealand was more panic than choke. There is a difference

Aakash Chopra

April 7, 2011

Comments: 113 | Text size: A | A

Brendon McCullum and Daniel Vettori react as JP Duminy is bowled, New Zealand v South Africa, 3rd quarter-final, Mirpur, World Cup 2011, March 25, 2011
JP Duminy's attempt to cut a straight delivery was a case of panic setting in © Associated Press
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South Africa's capitulation against New Zealand has brought the c-word out again. Nothing seems to have changed for them in big tournaments ever since they came back to international cricket after the apartheid era. They have always had the arsenal to go all the way and yet have fallen short, always in the knock-out stages. Not a single win in knock-out games in a World Cup is a record they'd give both their arms and legs to change.

While their record cannot be contested, whether they choked or not against New Zealand can be debated. There's a fundamental difference between choking and panicking, which the writer Malcolm Gladwell explains quite proficiently. While Gladwell talks in the context of tennis, his theory explains choking in cricket too.

What happened to South Africa against New Zealand in Mirpur was a bad case of panic, though it was conveniently considered a choke. So what exactly is choking and how is it different from panicking?

The fundamental difference is that while you think too much when you choke, you think too little when you panic. While choking, you want to delay the inevitable, but when you panic you want to get over with it as soon as possible, for you can't bear the growing pressure.


You play safe You may finish 30 runs short of the target if the opposition bowls really well and you lose all your wickets in the bargain. On the other hand, if you get to the 50th over needing 40 runs with five wickets in the hut, that's more of a problem. Some may call it a miscalculation but it really comes down to the mindset: to play safe for as long as possible.

South Africa have done this more times than any other team. Remember the tied game against Australia, when Allan Donald was run out? The match would have finished much earlier had Kallis and Co. not allowed Mark Waugh to bowl a lot of overs in the middle.

Chasing a target is a lot about identifying threats and weak links in the opposition and then treading with caution against potential threats while going after the weak links. Playing in safe mode can take you only so far; you must change gears at some point.

You don't take calculated risks Yuvraj Singh could easily have dabbed the ball towards third man instead of going over the point fielder against Brett Lee in the quarter-final in Ahmedabad. Going aerial may look dicey to some but it is extremely important to take calculated risks when you're playing strong opposition. If you wait forever for things to happen, chances are you won't be there when they do. When you refuse to take these calculated risks, you run the risk of digging a hole for the team, i.e. choking.

Chasing a target is a lot about identifying threats and weak links in the opposition and then treading with caution against potential threats while going after the weak links. Playing in safe mode can take you only so far; you must change gears at some point
You think too much "When thinking goes deep, decisions go weak" is an old saying and it describes choking perfectly. Sport is more about instinct than intellect. Intellect is the primary requirement while planning but once the game starts, instinct must take over. You are more likely to succeed when you react, not over-think, for there's hardly any time to think too much.

When you over-think, you tend to think about how things can go wrong, and so you stop trusting your instincts. When you think before every step you take, you end up walking too slow. If you keep thinking about the possibility of getting stumped, you will never be able to go down the track.

Playing an aggressive shot is, most times, about backing yourself and trusting your instincts to go through with it. But the fear of what may happen if the shot is mistimed, or the ball bounces a bit more or less than expected, can result in a defensive prod. This is choking at a micro level.

I've also found that teams and individuals who are more inclined to technique than flair are more likely to choke. Their strategic and technical know-how tell them to play it safe. On the contrary, people who have a healthy mix of technique with flair - say, Pakistan - are less likely to choke.


You commit hara-kiri Panic is, in fact, the exact opposite of choking. If you play it too safe for too long when you choke, you self-destruct in fast-forward when you panic. What happened to South Africa in Mirpur was a straightforward case of panicking. There were no demons in the track and the New Zealand attack wasn't all that formidable. South Africa were cruising at 108 for 2 at the halfway stage but once they lost a couple of wickets, panic set in. When you start trying to take non-existent singles (the AB de Villiers run-out), start manufacturing shots when you only need to play percentage cricket (JP Duminy's dismissal), play reckless shots despite having a set batsman at the other end (Dale Steyn's and Robin Peterson's dismissals), it's a sign the team has lost it.

You abandon rational thought You think too much while choking and too little when you panic. You may need to score a run a ball, but somehow it feels a lot more than that. A couple of dot balls are followed up by a high-risk shot to ease the pressure. When you panic you tend to overestimate the pressure. A run a ball, with wickets in hand, is like walking in the park on most days, but not when you're panicking. Rational thinking deserts you the moment you panic.

Why did Bangladesh play silly shots when wickets were tumbling all around them against South Africa? It's common sense that if you're four down for not many, you must drop anchor, but they did exactly the opposite and tried playing ambitious shots. A six or a four can't win you the game, but you don't think along those lines when you panic.

Fear takes hold When you choke, you fear making mistakes, and subsequently you fail. When you panic, it is the prospect of failure that you fear, which leads to committing mistakes. The fear of failure cripples you so much that you self-destruct and bring about the failure you fear.

AB de Villiers dives to avoid being run out, New Zealand v South Africa, 3rd quarter-final, Mirpur, World Cup 2011, March 25, 2011
AB de Villiers was in self-destruct mode when he took off for a non-existent single and got run out © Associated Press

Panic has a domino effect. It is like an epidemic that spreads through the team, while choking can be restricted to a couple of batsmen in the middle. Once panic sets in, it's quite apparent and visible to everyone, including the players in question, but choking goes unnoticed till the eventual calamity is at the door.

If I may draw an analogy from tennis: when a player chokes, he keeps hitting safe shots, bang in the middle of the court, ensuring they miss the net and are well inside the baseline, hoping the opponent will make a mistake. When the same player panics, he goes for non-existing winners, resulting in enforced errors.

The outcomes of choking and panicking may be the same but both are different from each other. So the next time you see a team lay down their arms, it might be worth looking closely to see if they have choked or panicked under pressure.

Former India opener Aakash Chopra is the author of Beyond the Blues, an account of the 2007-08 Ranji Trophy season. His website is here and his Twitter feed here

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Posted by   on (April 9, 2011, 20:33 GMT)

I supported SA through out, even I went on to tell my friends this time SA is not going to choke and they will be the winners, If they choke I said Iam not going to support them any more. But still I support them though they lost truly they are good a good side support.

Posted by WCdan59 on (April 9, 2011, 3:48 GMT)

I think this is very well written. "Choking" in a traditional sense is just to say a team lost a game they should have won, but I never thought to differentiate between panicking and choking during the match itself. Of course it's an entirely subjective debate, but differentiating between the two provides an insight into two vastly different 'methods of losing' (i guess you could say) games that shouldn't be lost. Kudos.

Posted by   on (April 8, 2011, 20:01 GMT)

Very well posted... Actually, I've read the Malcolm Gladwell article, when I read the book 'What The Dog Saw' which republished the New Yorker article and the moment I saw South Africa losing that match that way, I said to myself, "Now that's panic !" I'm a sportsman myself and I've tried to analyze what exactly happens when we choke or panic and I know, when I play Table Tennis, I can't get my shots going, I play safe, I know I choke. When this happens, even the solitary drive, smash or loop I go for falls either on the net or goes beyond the table, while I panic when I lose three points in a row when leading which makes me try innovative things. However, when one is in a position of having nothing to lose, chances of choke or panic creeping through are minimal. Indeed, that's what makes India's Cup win so amazing as they had everything to lose but still managed to hold on.... Awesome ! Great article ! Keep it up !

Posted by AnkurTyagi on (April 8, 2011, 19:21 GMT)

S.Af lost to Nz --choking!!!!! S.Af chased 400+ against Aus and won the series 3-2...??? what you call this..??? they are the second best side in cricket today..thats the truth ..accept it.!!!:)

Posted by   on (April 8, 2011, 13:43 GMT)

NZ is a better team - hahahaha - I almost choked on my lunch. And I don't think Kiwi rugby should be brought up in the context of choking....

Posted by   on (April 8, 2011, 13:39 GMT)

Slow day at the office, Akash?

Posted by Manzar_Alam on (April 8, 2011, 13:11 GMT)

well going by this def of Choke then Pakistan choked against India as there middle order was do defensive esp Misbah no calculated risk taken all bowlers were allowed to settle and delaying the powerplay...

Posted by Bala74 on (April 8, 2011, 12:10 GMT)

Not entirely true.... Choke and Panic are mutually exclusive. One follows the other. You first choke, the runs dry out, the asking rate shoots, then you begin to panic and go for high-risk shots or non-existant singles. Choking is when your top/middle-order is unable to score, not when your lower order to unable to score even at 5rpo (they are called lower order, for a reason). In other words, if panic leads to a top-order collapse, the inability of the lower order collapse must not be categorised as a choke. Finally, it doesnt matter, whether it is a choke or a panic - Everbody loves to critise SA with it.

Posted by CricketFreud on (April 8, 2011, 11:25 GMT)

u want to really understand the meaning of choke.. this article helps you out very well.. seriously.. SA should read this article.. if they reach the end of it, i guess they would hve finally overcome choking..

Posted by zn264 on (April 8, 2011, 10:28 GMT)

New Zealand are just a better cricket team, and rugby team for that matter.

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Aakash ChopraClose
Aakash Chopra Aakash Chopra is the 245th Indian to represent India in Test cricket. A batsman in the traditional mould, he played 10 Tests for India in 2003-04, and has played over 120 first-class matches. He currently plays for Delhi in the Ranji Trophy; his book Beyond the Blues was an account of the 2007-08 season. Chopra made a formidable opening combination with Virender Sehwag, which was believed to be one of the reasons for India's success in Australia and Pakistan in 2003-04. He is considered one of the best close-in fielders India has produced after Eknath Solkar.

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