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The finest non-white South African player of his generation

Basil D'Oliveira may have become a symbol of the battle against apartheid, but he was a more than handy player as well

Rob Steen

November 21, 2011

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Basil D'Oliveira drives on his way to 158, England v Australia, 5th Test,  The Oval, August 23, 1968
D'Oliveira during his best-known Test innings, the 158 against Australia at The Oval in 1968 © Getty Images
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When it comes to countervailing the wilfully naïve, almost invariably right-wing hordes who insist that sport and politics should never mix, Muhammad Ali and Jackie Robinson, whose impact on the American civil rights movement was undeniably profound, are most readily cited. Basil D'Oliveira, whose inspirational if turbulent career saw him become, however unintentionally, a stirring symbol of the battle to end apartheid, is no less worthy of global gratitude. In reaching the cricketing heights he did, he was a beacon of inspiration to anybody striving to overcome the drawbacks inherent in being born the wrong colour in the wrong land at the wrong time.

The "D'Oliveira Affair" of 1968, one of the most politically charged episodes in sporting history, "led directly", Gerald Majola, chief executive of South Africa Cricket, argued after D'Oliveira's death was announced, "to the intensification of opposition to apartheid around the world and contributed materially to the sports boycott that turned out to be an Achilles heel of the South African government". Ironically, as Huw Richards observed in the International Herald Tribune - not a newspaper renowned for its interest in cricket - the events of that summer "exposed the reality that while supporters of playing South Africa criticised opponents for bringing politics into sport, it was the apartheid regime that did precisely that by insisting that others conform to its racist norms". That South Africa's top-scorer against Australia on the day D'Oliveira died should be Hashim Amla was a welcome sign of the new order.

Peter Hain, the future MP who orchestrated the protests that forced the abandonment of South Africa's 1970 England tour, says Nelson Mandela himself told him he believed the campaign was "decisive" in the eventual triumph of the anti-apartheid struggle. But for D'Oliveira, and the anger his plight roused in the young Hain, himself a South African émigré, it might never have begun. Yet D'Oliveira never openly backed that struggle. "At the time many campaigners felt let down," admitted Hain. "But in retrospect, because he retained the quiet dignity of a cricketer first and last, he touched parts of public opinion that anti-apartheid activists could never reach."

It would be misleading, though, to depict D'Oliveira as wholly apolitical. As he told the Daily Mirror in 1998, he wanted "to prove that I could bat and that people from the black and coloured community… know how to conduct themselves". His greatest accomplishment, amid the maelstrom, was to prove just that.

Somewhat inevitably his qualities as a player tend to be overlooked. Possessed of a short backlift, stern concentration and withering power, "Dolly" amassed nearly 20,000 first-class runs at 40.46, with 45 centuries. How many more he might have compiled had he been born in a more advantageous environment we can only guess. In 44 official Tests, plus four against the Rest of the World in 1970, he made 2792 runs at over 40, including six centuries. If that history-changing 158 against Australia at The Oval stands tallest - it made his subsequent omission from the winter tour to South Africa all the more indefensible on cricket grounds but also because he had the determination and self-belief to promise his wife nothing less - no less admirable was an unbeaten 114 against Pakistan in Dacca, more than double the next-highest score.

Adversity was his fuel. At the MCG in 1971 he came in at 88 for 3 and made 117; in the decisive final Test, a fifth-wicket stand of 69 with Ray Illingworth, in the context of a contest England won by 62 runs, was vital. Two weeks later, a match-winning hundred on a capricious Christchurch pitch came from a launchpad of 31 for 3.

Those wobbly medium-pacers, moreover, delivered with the most deceptively easeful of actions, accounted for 551 first-class victims, and 47 in Tests at a smidge under 40 (plus nine against that mighty Rest of the World line-up). Much the most memorable came at The Oval in 1968, when Barry Jarman left a delivery that clipped the wicketkeeper's off- stump, opening the floodgates for Derek Underwood to pour through and square the series.

A SO-CALLED "CAPE COLOURED" from Signal Hill in the Bo-Kaap area on the outskirts of Cape Town, his birth date remains uncertain even now. He was coy about his age when he came to England, for practical reasons. Officially recorded as having been born in 1931, he claimed he was three years younger so as not to be deemed too long in the tooth. "If you had said I was closer to 40 than 35 when I first played for England," he later admitted, "I could not have sued you."

Early outings for Western Province testified to his batting gifts. "His first shot was struck over the long-off boundary for six," related Alfred Amansure, an erstwhile team-mate at St Augustine's CC, of an innings against Griqualand West in 1948-49. When a fielder was dispatched to the off-side boundary, "Basil responded by hitting another huge six over mid-on. So the Griqualand captain moved a player there too. Then Basil hit a straight six, cutting between both fielders."

 
 
In reaching the cricketing heights he did, D'Oliveira was a beacon of inspiration to anybody striving to overcome the drawbacks inherent in being born the wrong colour in the wrong land at the wrong time
 

He was also a shrewd swing bowler - indeed, he owed his fateful recall to the England XI for the 1968 Oval Test in part to 21 wickets in two matches, against Hampshire and Gloucestershire. His all-round feats in South Africa, and for the nation's first black representative sides, most notably when leading a 1958 tour of Kenya, made him a local legend. That he was the finest non-white South African player of his generation was undisputed.

Famously, it was a letter to John Arlott in 1958 that led, two years later, to a contract with Middleton, a Central Lancashire League club. The transition was traumatic. Weather and playing conditions were alien, likewise the opportunity to mix freely with white people. "We'd walk down the street and [his wife Naomi would] say, 'Do you see that?' as a white girl walked hand-in-hand with a black man." When they went to the cinema she assumed they would have to sit in a separate section. "Whenever the lights went up in the interval, she would die the death. She would grip my arm so tightly with tension that it would be bruised the next day."

Once settled, however, he was unstoppable. Signed by Worcestershire, his first full county season, 1965, saw him finish fifth in the national batting averages, behind four Test players. Within a year he was making his England debut at Lord's. The symbolism was not lost on Garry Sobers and his West Indian tourists: unluckily run out after Jim Parks' drive deflected off his heel, D'Oliveira was applauded from the field by the opposition, though he had scored only 27: call it brotherly solidarity.

The next season brought a maiden Test century, against India, but he was acutely conscious of the potential consequences of selection for the 1968-69 expedition to his homeland and endured a poor tour of the Caribbean, prompting a recourse to alcohol, one of the alibis for his exclusion from that original tour party for South Africa. Come the summer of 1968 he had become increasingly isolated.

In the first Ashes Test at Old Trafford he made 87 not out in an unexpected defeat, only to be ditched for Lord's in favour of a seamer, Barry Knight; a far more plausible explanation was that MCC, aware that sundry South African grandees would be in attendance, and bent on ensuring that the winter tour of the Republic would not fall foul of the Pretoria government, felt his presence would send out the wrong signals.

Mike Brearley, an active supporter of the "Stop the Seventy Tour" campaign, captured the sense of a man cornered: "He was under pressure from all sides, from militant black groups accusing him of selling out, to friends relying on him to carry the flag of non-white cricket, to those who would prefer him to be out of the picture." The measure of the man was that he kept his head while all around were losing theirs. Blighted in his latter years, like Ali, by Parkinson's disease, he personified dignity.

Rob Steen is a sportswriter and senior lecturer in sports journalism at the University of Brighton

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Posted by   on (November 22, 2011, 20:30 GMT)

S_African, I think the point of calling D'Oliveira "non-white" or "coloured" was that he was classified as such by the rules of Apartheid, and it limited his opportunities. Hopefully the same (that your opportunities are dictated by the colour of your skin) does not apply to you.

I remember watching the 158 on TV (with Underwood taking the last Australian wicket with 5 minutes to go). I then saw some of the 1970 Eng v RoW series live. The likes of Pollock (G&P) Barlow, Proctor and B Richards alongside some of the great West Indians (Sobers, Lloyd, Kanhai) of the time. Richards later opened for Hampshire with Gordon Greenidge (I saw them against a minor county attack with small boundaries - carnage!). SA cricketers seem to have been less pro Apartheid than, say, the rugby team.

Posted by   on (November 22, 2011, 10:17 GMT)

A great cricketer of his time, played positive cricket throughout, versatile all rounder of high calibre. A soft spoken person with good qualities and played the game in right spirits. Hats off to such a talented cricketer of yesteryear. I pray along with my cricketing friends for the departed noble soul to rest in peace.

Posted by   on (November 21, 2011, 19:31 GMT)

Qakamba says that "non-white" is politically incorrect. What are we to say? Dolly was certainly not black or African in race (I believe he was mostly of Indian blood). I (as a youngster) remember being surprised at finding out that he was considered "colored" at all because he looked like a caucasian with a suntan - which makes the whole situation even more absurd. I remember him well playing for England. He was the sort of person everyone liked. Even my mother (who was not much interested in politics, and only slightly interested in cricket) liked him, because he was such a dignified presence on the field. The sort of person she would like over for tea.... At the time of the "affair" people did wonder why he didn't say much. In retrospect I think we can all see that his quiet way that he went through it all was really the best that could be done for the cause.

Posted by bsriramster on (November 21, 2011, 18:26 GMT)

He is a Dolly good fellow, he is a Dolly good fellow!England gave him a dignified life thanks to late John Arlott. The words in this well written article, a classic tribute Dolly deserves moved me 'In reaching the cricketing heights he did, D'Oliveira was a beacon of inspiration to anybody striving to overcome the drawbacks inherent in being born the wrong colour in the wrong land at the wrong time '.His penchant for sixes over straight field is well known. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi made history when he was pushed out a moving train from a compartment reserved for whites only in Pietermaritzburg Railway station on a cold winter night in 1893.Dolly created history when England took apartheid regime by its horns to fight the devil out of the cricket tour cancellation ostracizing SA from cricket so much so SA could reform and join the mainstream in 1990.

Posted by AlanHarrison on (November 21, 2011, 17:11 GMT)

The embarrassment caused to the South African authorities by their mishandling of the D'Oliveira affair led them to be forced to respond differently when Omar Henry, another player of a somewhat similar style, came along in the next generation, leading to a weakening of the apartheid system's armour.

Posted by gujratwalla on (November 21, 2011, 16:57 GMT)

'More than handy' does scant justice to a genuine Test all-rounder who revelled under pressure.I wonder whether there can be found information about his origins and life in South Africa before his migration to England.Had he been born in the eighties he would be an automatic choice for South Africa today.I had the honour of seeing him in action and to us boys he was a considerate fatherly figure...a very kind human being.

Posted by S_African on (November 21, 2011, 16:49 GMT)

I think it's sad that he didn't play to his full potential, but there are many victims of that deplorable regime, Graeme Pollock, 23 Tests, 2256 runs and an average of 60.97 being one of many. But as a South African, I feel it's wrong to be put into a colour bracket, according to this article I'm a "non-black South African" which to me seems bizarre and completely wrong. South Africa will only move forward when people stop thinking in colour. How many more talented players players will miss their chance to represent their country because of their colour? I think the South African born players representing England today can give you an indication.

Posted by   on (November 21, 2011, 16:38 GMT)

As a youngster growing up in Guyana, he inspired us, with his genius and his grit. We cheered him on and joined the movement against apartheid, boycotting South African products . We were on his side even when he played against West Indies. We understood the shackles of racism and colonialism and he was our hero in a game we love. Thanks for the good fight. Imagine what could have been.

Posted by   on (November 21, 2011, 16:04 GMT)

Qakamba - surely that's the whole point? In apartheid South Africa you were either "white" or "non-white". And he was the best of those that were excluded by apartheid.

Posted by   on (November 21, 2011, 15:43 GMT)

" That South Africa's top-scorer against Australia on the day D'Oliveira died should be Hashim Amla was a welcome sign of the new order." Brought tears to my eyes.

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Rob SteenClose
Rob Steen Rob Steen is a sportswriter and senior lecturer in sports journalism at the University of Brighton, whose books include biographies of Desmond Haynes and David Gower (Cricket Society Literary Award winner) and 500-1 - The Miracle of Headingley '81. His investigation for the Wisden Cricketer, "Whatever Happened to the Black Cricketer?", won the UK section of the 2005 EU Journalism Award "For diversity, against discrimination"

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