Matt Roller is an assistant editor at ESPNcricinfo. @mroller98
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Foakes was seen warming up before the start of play on Saturday but did not take the field when England were bowled out shortly before lunch, with Jonny Bairstow taking the wicketkeeping gloves instead.
The ECB said that Foakes had returned to the team hotel midway through the afternoon session and that he would be assessed overnight ahead of the fourth day.
Foakes has made a bright start to the season in his first home series. He scored 107 runs for twice out in the first two Tests and has impressed with his glovework, though dropped two catches and was dismissed without scoring in the third.
Foakes has a concerning recent injury history and England will hope that this one is not serious, not least with the Headingley Test due to finish on Monday and the rescheduled fifth Test against India starting on Friday.
In the event that Foakes is ruled out, Yorkshire's Harry Brook would be the most likely player to come into the side to make his Test debut, with Bairstow taking the gloves.