The eight-day trip, departing from Glasgow on December 10, will feature one warm-up game before the two ODIs, in Chittagong on December 15 and Dhaka two days later.
If Scotland captain Craig Wright plays in both games he will overtake Greig Williamson as Scotland's most capped player of all time with 154 caps.
Cricket Scotland chief executive Roddy Smith said: "This is the start of a tremendous adventure for Scottish cricket. Over the next four months, Scotland's top cricketers will play full international matches in places they've never visited, and we will be judged by our performances. Bangladesh is just the beginning."
Several of the squad have played in Bangladesh before; Dougie Brown with England and Ross Lyons and Omer Hussain, for Scotland in the 2004 U19 World Cup.
Scotland have played only eight official ODIs - five of them in the 1999 World Cup, and national coach Peter Drinnen added: "The Bangladeshis will certainly want to win both these games, after we defeated them in Edinburgh two seasons ago. But we will be just as hungry for success, because we want to continue to build our international reputation."
Squad Craig Wright (capt), John Blain, Dougie Brown, Gavin Hamilton, Majid Haq, Paul Hoffmann, Omer Hussain, Dougie Lockhart, Ross Lyons, Neil McCallum, Dewald Nel, Navdeep Poonia, Colin Smith (wkt), Ryan Watson, Fraser Watts.